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Dépôt légal, N° 8472 de 12/01/2016,

1er Trimestre 2016,

Bibliothèque Nationale, Porto-Novo,

République du Bénin.

ISSN 1840-8087

Impression

Imprimerie BOCATHOS-INTER

Porto-novo, République du Bénin

Tél. (+229) 96 39 86 32/ 60 65 00 09.

Editions Africatex Média

01 BP 3950, Oganla, Porto-Novo, République du Bénin

Tél: (+229) 99 09 53 80 / 97 29 65 11 / 97 98 78 10

Janvier 2016

 

  1. 1. COMITE DE REDACTION
  • Directeur de Publication

Dr (MC) Jean-Claude HOUNMENOU

Maître de Conférences de la Psychologie des  Universités (CAMES), Ecole Normale Supérieur, Recteur de l’Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

  • Rédacteur en Chef

Dr (MC) Germain GONZALO

Maître de Conférences de Psychologie des Universités (CAMES), Directeur de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure de Porto-Novo, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

  • Rédacteur en Chef Adjoint

Dr (MC) Cyriaque C. S.  AHODEKON,

Maître de Conférences de Sociologie de l’Education des Universités (CAMES),

Institut National de la Jeunesse, de l’Education et du Sport (INJEPS),

Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

  • Secrétaire à la Rédaction

Dr Ibrahim YEKINI

Maître – Assistant de Littérature et Civilisation Britanniques des Universités (CAMES),

Directeur Adjoint de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure de Porto-Novo,

Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

  • Secrétaire à la Documentation, Traduction et aux Relations Publiques

Dr Théophile G. KODJO SONOU,

Docteur ès- Lettres, Assistant de Langue et Didactique Anglaises, Traduction  et Interprétation ; Sociolinguiste, Administrateur de l’Education et des Collectivités Locales, Consultant en Communication et Relations Internationales, Département d’Anglais,  Institut Universitaire Panafricain, Porto-Novo, Bénin

  1. COMITE SCIENTIFIQUE ET DE LECTURE
  • Président

Pr  Taofiki KOUMAKPAI

Professeur Titulaire de Littérature et de Civilisation Britanniques des Universités (CAMES), Département d’Anglais,  Faculté des Lettres, Arts et Sciences  Humaines,

Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.

 

  • Membres

Pr  Augustin AINAMON,

Professeur Titulaire de Littérature et de Civilisation Américaines et Africaines d’Expression Anglaise des Universités (CAMES), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

Pr Komlan Messan NUBUKPO,

Professeur Titulaire de Littérature et de Civilisation Américaines d’Expression Anglaise, Université de Lomé, Togo

Pr Mamoud Akanni IGUE

Professeur Titulaire de Linguistique des Universités (CAMES), Département des Sciences du Langage et de la               Communication, FLASH, Université d’Abomey – Calavi, Bénin.

 

Pr Babatunde AYERELU

Professeur of French, Faculty of Modern

Language, University of Ibadan, Nigeria

 

Pr Médard Dominique BADA

Professeur Titulaire de Linguistique des Universités (CAMES),

Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

Pr Komla Essowe ESSIZEWA

Professeur Titulaire de Linguistique et de Didactique Anglaises des Universités (CAMES), Département d’Anglais, Faculté des Lettres et Sciences Humaines, Université de Lomé, Togo.

Dr (MC) Innocent Coovi DATONDJI

Maître de Conférences de Linguistique et Didactique de la Langue Anglaise des Universités (CAMES), Directeur honoraire de l’Ecole Normale Supérieure (ENS), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

Dr (MC) Laure Clémence ZANOU

Maître de Conférences de Littérature et Civilisation Africaines d’Expression Anglaise des Universités (CAMES), Département d’Anglais, Faculté des Lettres, Arts et

Sciences  Humaines, Université d’Abomey-

Calavi, Abomey- Calavi, Bénin

 

Dr (MC) Moufoutaou Adebowale TIJANI

Associate Professor of French, Faculty of Arts,

Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria         

 

  1. 3. COMITE DE SUPERVISION DES TRAVAUX DE SECRETARIAT ET D’IMPRIMERIE

  • Responsable

Dr Rissikatou  Babalola  Moustapha

Maître-Assistant de Linguistique Anglaise Appliqué à la Traduction, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

  • Membre

Dr Sandé ZANNOU

Assistant de Géographie, FLASH Adjarra,  Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

Dr Elie YEBOU

Assistant des Sciences du Langage et de la Communication, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

 

Dr Lucien AGBANDJI

Assistant de Sociologie du Développement, Institut Universitaire Panafricain (IUP), Porto-Novo, Bénin

 

Dr Flavien M. GANKPE

Assitant de Littérature et Civilisation Africaine d’Expression Anglaise, FLASH Adjarra,  Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

  1. CONTRIBUTEURS  D’ARTICLES

Nom et Prénoms

Articles contribués et pages

Adresses

1

Prof Léonard A. KOUSSOUHON

&

Dr Aimé T. YOKOSSI

 

 

Textual and Interpersonal Meanings in A.S. Ogundimu’s Fiction: A Systemic Functional Perspective

Pages : 15 à 53

 

Département d’Anglais, Faculté des Lettres, Langues, Arts et Communication (FLLAC), Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC) Benin.

(Laboratory for Research in Linguistics and Literature (LabReLL))

 

2

Dr Ibrahim YEKINI,

Dr Franck MOUSTAPHA

&

Dr Barnabe OLADJEHOU

The concept of Romantic love as depicted in As You Like It by William Shakespeare

Pages : 54 à 95

 

University of Abomey Calavi, Bénin

3

Dr Evariste Assogba KOTTIN

 

 

Teaching Efl Through Seventeen Games

In Porto-Novo And Its Suburbs :

Advantages And Drawbacks

Pages : 96 à 147

 

Faculté des Lettres, Arts et Sciences Humaines (FLASH), Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin.

4

Dr Théophile Gbègninou KODJO SONOU

Analyse des apports au développement par les Interprètes

et Traducteur en Afrique : cas du Bénin

Pages : 148 à 183

Département d’Anglais,

Institut Universitaire Panafricain (IUP), Porto-Novo, Bénin.

5

Dr BALOGUN, O. O. E.

 

Contentious issues in nigeria policy challenges to doctrine

and faith

Pages : 184 à 197

Department of religious studies, College of Humanities (COHUM)

Tai solarin University of Education, Ijagun,

P.M.B. 2118 Ijebu Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria

 

6

Dr. TANITOLORUN,

Ezekiel Oladele

 

Etude contrastive des systèmes prosodiques du français et du yoruba

Pages : 198 à 232

Département du français

Tai Solarin University of Education

Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

7

Dr BABATUNDE, Femi

 

L’emploie du folklore dans la pédagogie du français

Langue étrangère

Pages : 233 à 255

(DLitt et Phil)

Department Of French,

Tai Solarin University Of Education, Ijebu-Ode, Nigeria

 

8

Dr Flavien Mahutondji GANKPE

 

Conflicts  and conflicts  resolution in Elechi Amadi’s the Great Ponds: a reappraisal

Pages : 256 à 318

English Department,

University of Abomey Calavi.

 

9

LALEYE, Kehinde Jonas

&

SUNMONU, Hamed Olaide

 

 

L’amélioration de la compétence orale à travers l’approche communicative dans l’enseignement du français dans les cours secondaires nigérians

 

Pages : 319 à 352

 

French department

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education, Otto/Ijanikin, Lagos State

 

10

Dr MEBITAGHAN, Rita Ochuko

&

MOMBE, Michael Ngonghe

 

La Modulation dans House boy la traduction anglaise d’Une vie de boy de Ferdinand Oyono

 

Pages : 353 à 378

 

Delta State University, Abraka

mebirita@yahoo.com

University of Port Harcourt

mombe200@yahoo.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

TEXTUAL AND INTERPERSONAL MEANINGS IN A.S. OGUNDIMU’S FICTION: A SYSTEMIC FUNCTIONAL PERSPECTIVE

Pr Léonard A. KOUSSOUHON

&

M. Aimé T. YOKOSSI

Département d’Anglais, Faculté des Lettres, Langues, Arts et Communication (FLLAC) Université d’Abomey-Calavi (UAC) Benin. Laboratory for Research in Linguistics and Literature (LabReLL)

 

Abstract

This paper investigates on the system of Textual and Interpersonal Metafunctions in Adetunji Suleiman Ogundimu’s The Insiders, A Silly Season and Behind The Mask. In fact, from each novel, an extract is selected and meticulously studied following the pathway of the theoretical scaffold of Halliday (1971). The study at hand is a result of an observation denoting that, in the framework of the linguistic achievements so far made, there have been various recent works on African literature based on the Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) theory, but there is a vacuum regarding the application of the above-mentioned Metafunctions in several modern fictional books, especially in the (above mentioned three) fictional books by Ogundimu. Then Textual Metafunction (Theme patterns) and Interpersonal Metafunction (Mood patterns) are explored herein to enhance the understanding and appreciation of the language Ogundimu uses in his fiction. Furthermore, this paper supplies a critical discussion of the findings from the analysis.

Key words: Context, Metafunction, Mood, Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL), Theme, etc.

 

Introduction

Language issue has been so important that several literary critics, sociologists and linguists have been investigating to work out all it is about and divulge its pathway for its best use by any society which can rather never stand without it. Language as used in society is scientifically revealed to be functioning by help of its trail ways which constitute the pillars to its understanding. In fact, language is characterized by a functional code or system. Eminent linguists have intensely inquired to come up with new approaches among which Systemic Linguistics is to be given special attention with respect to the field of inquiry at hand. Systemic Linguistics has to do with the scientific study of language working as a system. This has been the field of investigation of many researchers among which, Roger Fowler, Martin Montgomery, Ruquaiya Hasan and MAK Halliday who deepened it to come up with a more interesting approach: Systemic Functional Linguistics.

With regards to Halliday (1985)’s new approach – Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) – discussed by scholars like Suzanne Eggins in her book entitled: An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics (1994), when dealing with grammar in any language, there are three distinct meanings: Ideational, Textual and Interpersonal. The Experiential Meaning has to do with the way experience is represented in language. The Textual Meaning is about the way any written or oral information is organized and the Interpersonal Meaning deals with how we express our thoughts when speaking to others or the way we address others. In this paper, the Textual and Interpersonal Meanings constitute the core vocation.

As a matter of fact, let’s highlight that the application of the SFL theory helps get a deeper understanding of the way expressions, clauses, sentences are purposefully uttered in society to mean many things; in short it clarifies language use. And famous African writers have been writing to demonstrate African realities through their (fictional) books. Each writer has his way of using the language.  The very critical aspect we are to pinpoint here is that Ogundimu appears as a new face rising from the melting pot of current African fiction writers with a strange and special technique in passing on realities through fiction. This is shown by his way of manipulating and adapting the rhythm, syntax, semantics, lexical choices to the cultural idealism he focuses on. His culture-revealing fiction, even though centered on the Nigerian community is representative of the realities occurring in the whole African society of today.

Our analysis focuses on three of Ogundimu’s fictional books: “The Insiders”, “A Silly Season” and “Behind the Mask”. In addition, the main objective of this study is to depict the whole organization of language in an extract from each of the novels through the application of the aforementioned theory and help enhance the understanding of Ogundimu’s fiction. In fact, it is an exploration and a statistically uncovered identification of the lexicogrammatical features Ogundimu draws on in the selected extracts to accurately show a large part of African culture. This applicatory criticism on the selected texts will help know the main objective he intends to achieve. We deem fit to carry out a critical discussion of findings on this analysis to which is coupled a comparative study of the novels under study to really understand the language of Ogundimu as used in his fiction.

 

1. Theoretical Framework

In this part of the task, our concern is about giving an overview on Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) bringing out some works related to the field. Then, we are also to deal with the key concepts the study at hand is based on which are Textual and Interpersonal Meanings so as to give a clear understanding of the scope of this research work.

 

1.1. An overview of Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL).

To begin with, the theory of Systemic Functional Linguistics has come to being thanks to Halliday. Through this theory, he shows that language is a societal resource for choice and meaning-making. According to the Systemic Functional Linguistics perspective, language is to be seen as functioning on basis of a semiotic system built up in three levels. These levels point at discourse-semantics, lexicogrammar and phonology, each of which stands to represent a choice system. Systemic Functional linguists are very often more specifically interested in investigations on lexicogrammar and discourse-semantics. The reason for this is that language is seen by linguists as a strong and strategic resource very helpful in meaning-making. The perspective of Systemic Functional Linguistics identifies language as characterized by lexis (words) and grammar (structures) their use and choice to form and constitute meaningful texts.  In fact, discourse analysis proceeds together with grammar. Indeed, Halliday points out that “a discourse analysis that is not based on grammar is not an analysis at all, but simply a running commentary on a text” (Halliday 1985: xvii, cited in Eggins 1994:22). So for a proper investigation, the systemic functional model (including its basic theoretical claims) should be followed by analysts and practitioners.

 

1.2 Textual Meaning: Theme Analysis

Textual meaning embodies what is known as theme (Mode). In the light of Halliday’s thought as quoted by Eggins, theme is seen as the enabling Metafunction (Eggins, 1994:273). In fact, it has to do with the organization of the text. A well-organized text is a text structured intelligibly creating cohesion and coherence which are the clue elements that make the message flow out. Furthermore, an intelligibly organized text owns what is known as texture. It binds all the elements of the text together. This is indeed what makes the reader/listener feel at ease since it generates harmony. Texture should be realised in the clause for it to be understood.  According to Halliday, texture is achieved in the clause by means of “the total theme-rheme structure”. (Halliday, 1971:331).

In fact, theme is the fundamental part of the clause. It is the starting point for the message and the rheme is the second part of the clause where the theme is developed. Three types of theme are identified:  the topical, the textual and the interpersonal themes. Theme analysis has to be carried out to help have a comprehension of the organisation of the clause constituents. The mechanism of use of the clause constituents should also be studied to uncover how the text acquires its coherence and cohesion essence for it to be a meaningful unit.

 

1.3 Interpersonal Meaning: Mood Analysis

Language is used to set up or establish a relationship between interactants, viz. between people of the society. That’s what Halliday marks out by stating that “whenever we use language to interact, one of the things we are doing is to establish a relationship between us… ”Halliday (1984, 1985a: 68 – 71) from (Eggins, 1994:149). In fact, Mood has to do with the expression of “attitudes, judgments, points of view, social relationship…, etc.” (Amoussou, 2000:21). Mood is expressed through the negotiation of meanings. According to Eggins, the Mood structure of a clause refers to “the organisation of a set of functional constituents including the constituent subject” (Eggins, 1994:152).

Furthermore, Mood analysis involves the analysis of mood types (declarative, interrogative, modulated interrogative and imperative), modality (Modalisation and Modulation) and adjunct types (circumstantial, mood, comment, polarity, vocative, conjunctive, and continuity) deployed in the text. The analysis of the foregoing features reveals how role relationships and power relations occur in any interaction between language users. This piece of work endeavours to reveal Ogundimu’s attitude towards his personae in the texts through the analysis of the aforementioned components.

 

2. Practical Analysis of Textual and Interpersonal Meanings in Extracts from Ogundimu’s Fiction

This part presents the analysis of the linguistic features as presented in the foregoing section. At this level, we deal with the application of the theory to sample texts taken from the three novels under study. The task here is just an explanatory one for “the analysis of a text is an explanation of that text” (Halliday and Hasan 1976:327). Just as suggested by prominent scholars like Geoffrey Leech (1965), Clifford Hill (1987), Léonard Koussouhon (2008), etc., this kind of analysis is a two-dimension task: description and interpretation.

 

2.1. Analysis of the Extracts

In this part, we are to describe the Textual and Interpersonal meaning features of the extracts. This is done in each clause of each extract, the constituents are counted and their numbers recorded. Due to space, we only present the statistic table that informs on the two phases (Theme and Mood) of the three extracts. But in the subsequent sections, we recall the statistics of the Theme and Mood features in each extract followed by a critical discussion.

 

 

 

Extracts from Ogundimu’s fictional texts

 

 

The Insiders

A Silly Season

Behind The Mask

 

Theme Features

Extract 1

Extract 2

Extract 3

Total

Theme Types

Topical themes

220

182

129

531

Textual themes

59

46

35

140

Interpersonal themes

44

19

06

69

Total

323

247

170

740

Mood Features

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mood Types

Declarative

157

105

82

344

Interrogative

29

32

28

89

Modulated interrogative

04

02

00

04

Imperative

06

07

02

15

Minor clauses

03

06

10

21

Total

199

152

122

473

Modality Types

Modalized

07

16

08

31

Modulated

09

03

03

15

Total

16

19

11

46

Adjunct Types

Mood

02

05

07

14

Polarity

04

03

02

09

Vocative

01

04

03

08

Comment

00

02

01

03

Circumstantial

08

09

05

22

Conjunctive

05

16

12

33

Continuity

05

28

11

44

Total

25

67

41

133

Table 1: Statistics of Theme and Mood features in the three extracts.

2.2 Critical Discussion of the Findings in Extract 1

Table 2 presents the Theme and Mood features in Extract 1.

Theme Features

Theme Types

Topical

Textual

Interpersonal

Percentage (%)

68.11

18.26

13.62

Mood Features

Mood Types

Declaratives

Interrogatives

Modulated

Interrogatives

Imperatives

Minor Clauses

Percentage (%)

78.89

14.57

02.01

03.01

01.50

Modality Types

Modalization

Modulation

Percentage (%)

43.75

56.25

Adjunct Types

Mood

Polarity

Vocative

Comment

Circumstantial

Conjunctive

Continuity

Percentage (%)

08

16

04

00

32

20

20

Table 1 Statistics of Theme and Mood features in Extract 1.

As the table above indicates, Theme analysis of extract 1 involves the three Theme types. Topical themes (68.11%) rank first, Textual themes (18.26%) second and Interpersonal themes (13.62%) third. Topical themes being predominant are suggestive of the great number of thematic elements set together in the text. But it is not worthless to mention that the themes in the text are classified into two categories: proper nouns such as “Bayo”, “Maman Tunde”, “Nike” and “Moji”, and noun phrases such as “the other urgent riddle”, “the white doctor”, etc. These proper nouns and noun phrases are replaced by personal pronouns. These pronouns are used in an anaphoric relation with the words they refer back to in the text. In the same way, some lexical items such as “Bayo”, “Maman Tunde”, “Moji”, “Oloparun”, etc., send the reader’s attention to a cultural reality. The use of such words as names of human beings or inanimate things discloses the fact that the writer wants to prove the originality of his fiction. All these names point to native persons, local things and facts.

On top of this, Textual themes are also used in the extract to help get a strongly built piece. In fact, some Textual elements are more used than others by the writer in a rehearsed way. Theme patterns are used by Ogundimu to erect his text in a harmonious way to get a cohesive and coherent piece. The cohesiveness of the text here is explained by the fact that there is no ambiguity or difficulty in understanding what the writer intends to transfer into the reader’s mind. Though so many of the important lexical items are in the local language, there is fluidity in getting the message. This is favoured by texture created with the help of the textual strings. As for the coherence of the text here, Ogundimu’s choice of textual elements profiles the text in a way for it to fit into the context at hand.

Moreover, Interpersonal themes, third class of the theme analysis carried out in this research work is not of less importance. It is essential to indicate that the text writer takes into account the relationship between interactants involved in the fiction. The feeling, the mood of the participants in a conversation is determinant of the type of expressions they utter. The use of “Okay”, “well”, “Listen”, respectively in clauses 74, 80, 90 etc., is typically indicative of the mode of language adopted in the text. The mode, because of the use of these elements is then a spoken one here, and the power relation of their interaction is also revealed. The interpersonal concern will be more deeply dealt with when talking of Interpersonal meaning which involves mood analysis in the extract.

The Mood analysis helps to disclose role relationships and power relations between all the participants in general and especially between Bayo and the “Insiders”. This analysis shows how participants exchange information with one another. The writer is thereby also passing on information to the attention of the reader. This is shown through the large number of declaratives (78.89%) in the extract. Interrogatives (14. 57%) also imply that there is a face-to-face relation between the participants. And this is enhanced by the presence of imperatives though the percentage is not high (03%), it stands for it. Both interrogatives and imperatives are uttered among the three main participants in the extract here viz. Bayo, the hero of the novel, Maman Tunde, one of the Insiders and Nike, Bayo’s mother’s half-sister. Interrogatives in the extract are mostly from Bayo and Nike.

In fact, throughout all the extract, Bayo has been in a bad mood. His expressions and ways of speaking are out of anger against members of his large family. After he has been sent to jail, Bayo has commenced another phase of his life, that of looking for the source of the plight he has been enduring for long now. So, just the following morning, Bayo still nervous is sending his aunt direct interrogatives. Not that the relation here is to show Bayo’s superiority over the other participants, namely: Maman Tunde and Nike. But he is seeking to understanding the source of everything in the mess he is overwhelmed with. The interrogatives and modulated interrogatives are sent in a nervous way, as in clauses 125 and 126: “Were you not living at Lafiaji when I was a baby?” And talking about Moji, after discovering she is in the center of everything, he has uttered a modulated interrogative, as in clause 206: “Why must she have a finger in every pie?”

As for the imperatives, they are meant to give orders in most of the cases but sometimes in different moods. Bayo in his part in clauses 47 and 55, asks his aunt Maman Tunde not to enter his room but to stay away still in the intension to express his unhappiness and anger. But the remarkable interrogative expressed by Maman Tunde in clause 61 shows a willingness to understand what the source of Bayo’s anger is. But as for Nike, she first expresses some joking interrogatives in clauses 76 and 79 not knowing there has been a tension before her arrival. The imperative she addresses to Maman Tunde is also of the same scope in clause 81: “Go back home then”. But when she realises the case was a serious one, her relation noticeably changes. All the interrogatives she employs thereafter are those of surprise in clauses 86, 106 and 110. So the writer is thus pointing out that language use depends on context and the mood of its user.

Equally, modality used in the extract reveals more the nature of the participants in text. In fact, the higher percentage of selection in modulation expresses again the tension between the interactants. This is revealed through the use of modals like “must”, “should” in the extract. It is remarked in the expression of Nike to the attention of Bayo, the son of her half-sister, and that of Bayo towards Moji after realizing she is in the center of every bad event happening to him.

Adjuncts are also clue elements demonstrating the nature of the participants. This enhances the sense of what is intended by the writer concerning mood influenced by context.  Circumstantials here cover 32% of the adjunct class. This reveals that circumstances prove or have impact on what we express. With the presence of other adjuncts like conjunctives (20%) and continuity (20%), there is the progression of the same frame for they create texture in the passage. The adjuncts allow a fluidity of the information the writer intends to deliver. They help convey in a more fluent way what one intends to say by creating coherence between the parts of the text. In fact, the writer makes use of these adjuncts to build a unified and pretty text to help understand the role of “the Kudoros” in the text.

 

2.3 Critical Discussion of the Findings in Extract 2

Table 3 encapsulates the Theme and Mood features in Extract 2.

Theme Features

Theme Types

Topical

Textual

Interpersonal

Percentage (%)

73.68

18.62

07.69

Mood Features

Mood Types

Declaratives

Interrogatives

Modulated

Interrogatives

Imperatives

Minor Clauses

Percentage (%)

69.07

21.05

01.31

04.60

03.94

Modality Types

Modalization

Modulation

Percentage (%)

84.21

15.78

Adjunct Types

Mood

Polarity

Vocative

Comment

Circumstantial

Conjunctive

Continuity

Percentage (%)

07.46

4.47

5.97

2.98

13.43

23.88

41.79

 

Table 3: Statistics of Theme and Mood features in Extract 2.

 

Table 3 shows that extract 2 includes the three Theme types: Topical, Textual and Interpersonal. Topical themes (73.68%) rank first just like in the case of the first extract. Textual themes (18.62%) rank second and Interpersonal themes (07.69%) come last in the classification. In fact, a large number of Topical themes can be suggestive of a large number of thematic elements deployed in a text. Topical items in this text are classified into two categories: proper nouns and noun phrases. Some examples of proper nouns are “Kayode”, “Mrs Banji”, “Oga”, etc. Some examples of noun phrases are “the staff”, “the ministry”, etc. The writer also makes use of personal pronouns to refer back to the proper nouns and noun phrases. As a matter of fact, Ogundimu’s use of proper nouns and noun phrases, just like they appear (“Kayode”, “Mrs Banji”, “Oga”, etc.) as local names of conscious and unconscious participants, truly provides the text with an African originality. Indeed, this writer, as a modern African fiction writer, just like his elders in fiction writing, wants to reveal what is happening in his society. And A Silly Season written and published in 2008 is a picture of one of the most dangerous and poisonous flu undermining the modern society. So the use of these Topical themes throws the reader’s mind into a Yoruba land.

Moreover, there are Textual themes in the text that bind together bits of elements of the text helping to the logic of facts and events. The writer uses some textual elements more than others. The writer uses Theme patterns to build his text in an unambiguous way for the reader. The textual elements bring texture into the extract. So the extract will be said to be cohesive because of the perfection in the organization of the text that enables a fast understanding of the idea of the writer. The use of the following textual items “then”, “and”, “Besides”, “then”, respectively in clauses 25, 30, 76, 127, for instance, shows how the text is structured to create some logic in the transfer of the message. There is also coherence in the text because of the writer’s choice of textual themes that makes the text fit into the context in which the fiction is conceived. When the text is coherent, its meaning is obtained faster by the reader. Interpersonal themes are also relevant in this study. They help understand the relations between people. Interactants, in their role relations, use the language in a given mode. The mood of the interactants is shown through their mode of using the language. The interpersonal concern will be developed in the coming paragraph.

Mood analysis in this extract is meant to help depict the role relationships and power relations between participants in/of the text in general and especially between the Commissioner called Oga here and his junior, Kayode. The huge number of declaratives (69.07%) in the extract is suggestive of the intention of the writer to deliver all the truth on what is happening in his society with no reserve. It is factual that he makes the interactants speak and react in direct utterances; this is shown through the use of so many declaratives in the text. As said before, A Silly Season is fictional but stands to disclose the chains of corruption holding the African society undeveloped. Kayode, the personal assistant of the Commissioner, Kunle Bangbelu called Oga in the extract, is already initiated into the business of bribes and could even teach his Oga. Kayode masters the bribing system and could play all the game alone but unfortunately to some extent for him, he is now being hindered by the new commissioner, his master. The Commissioner and his assistant have come to be victims of the flu. Oga who is supposed to keep the bribe money well, unwillingly loses it to the benefit of Kayode who comes back for it. Kayode is now claiming his share and that of the other officers that he calls co-owners. He is then in good position to challenge fiercely because he has been hindered for long from doing what he has been used to before this new commissioner and has been looking for an opportunity to make his boss pay for it. This is then proved by the use of declaratives like clauses 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57.

As a matter of fact, Kayode is normally the assistant and should even be quiet towards his “Oga”, but Ogundimu makes him be in position of power over his superior to show how money transfers power into the behaviour of people of today’s African societies. Kayode claiming his share challenges his Oga vehemently and uses so many declaratives as in “otherwise, nobody can look me in the face” (clause 131) and interrogative moods as in: “After all, whose money are we talking about? (clause 134). “What did you sell?” (clause 135). “What did the ministry sell?” (clause 136). There are also interrogatives (21.05%) used in the extract. As a matter of fact, Kunle, the commissioner and Kayode, his assistant are placed by the writer to stand in a face-to-face interaction and then represent the real actors of corruption in their society. Imperatives (04.60%) are also of not less importance. Imperatives augment the issue of power relations between interactants, namely: the two prominent ones and Mrs Banji, the permanent secretary. What is interesting in the mood relationship with Mrs Banji is that here she plays the role of the guardian of African values. The fact that Kayode speaks disrespectfully to his superior and master and gives him orders is an inversion of habitual facts according to African norms. And this is considered as “dehabitualisation” (Fowler, 1986:31). After watching the scene between Oga and Kayode, Mrs Banji has to intervene in the jumble. She then attacks Kayode. She also uses interrogatives, as in the following clauses. “What is wrong with you?” (clause 172). “Is that the way you talk to an elder?” (clause 173). According to the realities in African societies, we must never talk to an elder in an unpleasant way. The junior/younger owes his/her seniors/elders total respect in Africa.

In addition, the use of modality in the extract helps unearth the nature of the participants in the text. As a matter of fact, modalisation (84.21%) is more used than modulation (15.78%). This suggests some uncertainty from the side of the writer. It reveals that the writer somehow is not holding steadfast certainty about what he expresses. This is seen through the use of “would” in clause 45 and “could” in clause 101, etc. It also shows probability from the participants.

Finally, in this part, adjuncts are used in the extract to enhance the demonstration of the nature of participants in interaction in the extract. Adjuncts used by the writer help know that the mood of participants has an impact in the context. In this extract, the choice of conjunctives amounts to 23% while continuity reaches 41%. Circumstantials here cover 13.43%. They are indicative of circumstances in the extract. As for conjunctives, they contribute to the written communication, while continuity is more favouring oral texture. With adjuncts, there is a fast understanding of the information the writer intends to deliver. They also contribute to the fluency of the writer’s narration. Even though they are in small number, vocatives (5.97%) are used in the text to help discover how participants address one another in the extract.

 

2.4 Critical Discussion of the Findings in Extract 3

Table 4 sums up the Theme and Mood features in Extract 3.

 

Theme Features

Theme Types

Topical

Textual

Interpersonal

Percentage (%)

75.88

20.58

03.52

 

Mood Features

Mood Types

Declaratives

Interrogatives

Modulated

Interrogatives

Imperatives

Minor Clauses

Percentage (%)

67.21

22.95

00

01.63

08.19

Modality Types

Modalization

Modulation

Percentage (%)

72.72

27.27

Adjunct Types

Mood

Polarity

Vocative

Comment

Circumstantial

Conjunctive

Continuity

Percentage (%)

24.07

04.87

07.31

02.43

12.19

29.26

26.82

Table 4: Statistics of Theme and Mood features in Extract 3.

 

As Table 4 exudes, the analysis of Textual and interpersonal meanings in extract 3 includes two phases of analysis: Theme and Mood. Theme analysis shows that extract 3 covers the three Theme types. Topical themes (75.88%) rank first just like in the case of the first two extracts. Textual themes (20.58%) rank second and Interpersonal themes (03.52%) third. Indeed, a large number of Topical themes are deployed in this extract which is suggestive of the thematic linguistic elements present in the text. It is also important to mention that the thematic elements here are of two types: proper nouns or noun phrases. Examples of proper nouns in this extract are: “Peju”, “Kukoyi”, “Doyin”, etc. Here are some noun phrases: “my daughter”, “a church” etc. There are also personal pronouns that the writer makes use of to refer back to the proper nouns and noun phrases in use in the extract. In fact, by using proper nouns and noun phrases, the writer wants to let understand that this is a typical African concern and not that of another continent wherein he puts into action conscious and unconscious participants. Behind The Mask was published in 2008. It is about real African facts experienced by the African people. Nowadays, people seeking for money and fortune abandon their families and struggle even in dark things. No matter what they are to get into, they do not care, provided the final result comes up to their profit. But what they often forget is that only change is permanent. A neglected poor can become rich. This is what the writer also reveals here in this novel. The choice of Topical themes in African language gives the text an African resonance and harmonious sound with the events being described. For instance, the use of Topical themes like “Lemboye”, “Kunle”, “Biola”, “Ma”, “Kukoyi” respectively in clauses 85, 86, 104, 119, 141, makes one think of typical African names, as these are names of both conscious and unconscious participants.

Theme analysis also includes Textual themes analysis. Textual elements are the linguistic features that hold together the parts or elements of the text and contribute to the logic of facts and events. The writer uses some Textual elements more than others. By using textual strings, he builds a unified whole in a definite way which will be favourable to the understanding of the text. These textual strings transmit texture into the extract. With the following “but”, “Yet”, “and” “However”, “when”, “besides”, etc., respectively in clauses 69, 72, 77, 90, 91, 98, there is perfect connection between the elements of the text. In addition, Theme analysis takes into account Interpersonal themes. In this extract, they are deployed to help understand the relations between people. The mood of the interactants is shown through the mode in which they use language. The Interpersonal themes are also relevant for the understanding of the role relationships and power relations between the interactants. How are role relationships and power relations established between participants in/of the text?

In fact, Mood analysis in this extract helps disclose the role relationships and power relations between the participants of the text in general in this extract and between Peju, the hero of the novel, and the other main personae such as Kukoyi. In the extract, there is use of a great deal of declaratives (67.21%) and interrogatives (22.95%). The use of these declaratives is suggestive of Ogundimu’s intention to reveal all the reality in a specific family life as a prototype of several households in Africa experiencing the same crisis today. He then makes his participants interact using direct utterances, declaratives in a large number. As said earlier, the writer discloses a family life which is under the disturbance of a husband (Kukoyi) seeking for pleasure and a better life by all means, throwing his wife and children down. This is what the writer intends to convey by using declaratives. As a matter of fact, Kukoyi who has forsaken his family for the pursuit of Ruth whom he has thought he is in love with finds himself abandoned by the latter and more dangerously in bad circumstances. He could now think of his family a bit. Having spent all he has had in the voyage to find pleasure, he is now left with no penny to take care of his children living with him. This is especially revealed when one of them, Doyin has fallen seriously sick. After some time spent in hospital, things have become serious. In clauses 70 and 71, he claims: “he could no longer afford the bills”. At that time, things have positively changed for Peju, his first wife, mother of the sick daughter and she has already started looking for the child to save her life. This is then what makes Peju be in such a nervous mood. She is just throwing interrogatives at any person likely to provide her with any useful bit of information. For instance, in clauses 23, 28, 32, 33, her interrogatives are just flowing when she gets to the hospital where her daughter is supposed to be on treatment: “Is Doyin Aralamo on admission here?” “Has she been discharged?” What happened to her?” “Is she dead?” This shows the love and compassion of a mother towards her child in African societies. At that hospital, the nurse on duty is obliged to retort with interrogatives too because she cannot help but seek to understand what the matter is, as in clauses 38 and 39 non-stop: “Who are you?” “Why are you asking?”

Furthermore, there are also imperatives (01.63%) and minor clauses used in the extract. An example of imperative is said by the nurse to Peju in clauses 46, 49, 50: “Don’t blame us here”. “Go” “and ask your husband”. Imperatives here determine the power relations between the interactants. The nurse by stating these imperatives is giving orders but in the sense to tell Peju she is tired of her ways of asking things. And Peju herself by saying in clause 163 “Go and produce my daughter” is also asking her husband to return her daughter in a fine state because he is the cause of everything.  But this surely makes Kukoyi react because a wife is not normally supposed to be giving her husband orders according to African traditions. So this is seen as an inversion of habitual facts, “dehabitualisation” (Fowler, 1986:31).

Moreover, modality and adjuncts are used in the extract to help know the nature of the participants’ mood in the text. Modalisation amounts to 72.72% and modulation to 27.27%. This is suggestive of uncertainty from the writer’s side. The statement (by the writer) of probability of facts or events and the fact of not being too sure of what is going to be said is expressed through modalisation ranking first here. It reveals that the writer somehow is not holding on steadfastly what he expresses.

Modalisation is achieved in the extract with modals such as “could” and “can” respectively in clauses 103 and 168. As for adjuncts, they are used in the extract to help disclose the nature of the participants interacting here. The mood of the participants is impacted by the context of the text. In this extract, conjunctives are 29.26% and continuity 26.82%. As for circumstantials, they are 12.19%. In addition, there are up to 24% of mood expressed in the extract. These mood adjuncts contribute to the understanding of the relations between the participants present in the text. While circumstantial properties are indicative of the circumstances of manner and place of events, conjunctive and continuity ones contribute to the understanding of the text in whole.

 

3. Summary and Conclusion

The focus of this paper has revolved around how Textual and Interpersonal meanings are deployed in A.S. Ogundimu’s The Insiders, A Silly Season and Behind The Mask. The first part of this research work has been about the theoretical framework where light is shed on the SFL scope and the important concepts of this field of investigation. In the second part we have tried to focus on the practical analysis of Textual and Interpersonal meanings through the study of Theme and Mood features in the extracts followed by discussion of findings at each level. So an extract has been retrieved from each fictional book and analyzed.

As a matter of fact, the Theme Analysis of the extract reveals a huge number of Topical themes (68.11%, 73.68%, and 75.88% respectively in extracts 1, 2, and 3). Findings reveal that the writer targets on concrete actions by using topical themes which are especially proper nouns and noun phrases. Personal pronouns are also used to refer to these proper nouns and noun phrases. Textual themes in the extracts rank second. This shows the existence of texture in the extracts. With the use of textual strings, cohesion is built up and coherence is noticeable by the reader and the message in each novel is easily understood.

Mood analysis in the extracts results in a huge number of declaratives (78.89%, 69.07% and 67.21% respectively in extracts 1, 2 and 3). This shows an exchange of information between the participants in the extract then in the novel. The writer is conveying thus his message in a way that catches the attention of the reader. On top of this, the use of both interrogatives (14.57%, 21.05% and 22.95% respectively in the extracts 1, 2 and 3), and Imperatives (03.01%, 04.60% and 01.63% respectively in extracts 1, 2, and 3) discloses the role relationships and power relations between the interactants. Ogundimu thus shows more how factual his intention appears throughout the novels. The choice in Modality (modalisation and modulation) reveals the personalities of the participants in the extracts and puts a stress on their mood. Adjuncts to a non-neglectful proportion play the same role. They help get a larger understanding on the participants’ interaction and exhibit the written mode of the texts. The foregoing features help discover more how Bayo, the main character of The Insiders has been a victim of hatred, selfishness and disgust from the Kudoros and how he has finally turned against the so-called fate on his life.

Moreover, in the second extract, findings show that there is the highest use of interrogatives and imperatives as compared to the other extracts. In fact, Interrogatives and imperatives are deployed in the second extract and more used by Kayode and his Oga to depict the flaws of Africans and their bad administrative deeds. Kayode has shown an unequal power relation because he has become greater – so to say – than his Boss who has fallen into his trap. He can now challenge him with no fear. This is what Fowler calls “dehabitualisation” (Fowler, 1986:31). Peju (in Behind the mask) has also used interrogatives when she has progressively come to defeat and has taken control over everything about her life and her children’. In addition, the power relations between Peju and her husband in the third extract is to be seen as dehabitualisation, for in African traditions a woman cannot have such a power over her husband. Ogundimu is also revealing by the husband’s personality the drawbacks of blindly looking for easy life and pleasure.

To recap, it can be said that SFL is an effective mold for any language study. Its application has revealed the meanings enclosed in the literary works under study. Theme and Mood analysis in Ogundimu’s fiction has helped disclose the idea and message he intends to convey to African people. This would not have been possible if there were no such study. The writer produces literary works but which still need to be analyzed for a better understanding. His fiction is written on a given community among so many ones in the same continent that share the same vital traditions, values and cultures. In a nutshell, the discussion of findings has helped grasp the scope of the author’s linguistic properties compiled in the novels under study.

It is useful to mention here that the current article has not succeeded in covering many linguistic fields of investigation. The experiential meaning, for instance, is not developed here. So, further studies can be carried out on that aspect for a better understanding of the writer’s prose works. Other aspects like: Pidginization, Nativization (indigenization) and code switching can also be the interest of further research endeavours.

 

References

  1. 1. CORPUS

-Ogundimu, A.S. (2008): The Insiders, First Edition, Campus publication Ltd. Abeokuta, Lagos.

-Ogundimu, A.S. (2008): A Silly Season, First Edition, Campus publication Ltd. Abeokuta, Lagos.

-Ogundimu, A.S. (2008): Behind The Mask, First Edition, Campus publication Ltd. Abeokuta, Lagos.

 

 

2.  BOOKS

-Brown, K. (2004): Encyclopedia of Language and Linguistics, Second Edition, Volume 1,

Elsevier, the Pergamon Imprint.

-Eggins, S. (1994): An Introduction to Systemic Functional Linguistics. London: Pinter

Publishers.

-Finch, G. (2003): How to Study Linguistics: A Guide to Understanding Language, Second

Edition, Palgrave Macmillan.

-Fowler, R. (1977): Linguistics and the Novel, First Edition. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd.

-Fowler, R. (1986): Linguistic Criticism, First Edition, UK: University Press.

-Halliday, M.A.K. Introduction to functional grammar, 1st ed. (1985) London: Edward Arnold.

-Halliday, M. A. K. And Hasan, R. (1976): Cohesion in English. London: Longman.

-Halliday, M. A. K. And Hasan, R. (1985) Language, text and context: aspects of language in a

semiotic perspective. Oxford, Oxford UniversityPress.

-Yule, G. (2010): The Study Of Language, Fourth Edition. Cambridge: Cambridge University

Press.

3. ARTICLES

-Halliday, M. A. K. (1970): “Descriptive Linguistics in Literary Studies”. In Freeman, D. C.

(1970) Linguistic and Literary Style. London: Oxford University Press.

-Halliday, M. A. K. (1971): “Linguistic Function and Literary Style”: An inquiry into the

Language of William Golding’s “The Inheritors””. In S. B. Chatman (ed) Literary Style.

London and New York: Oxford University Press.

-Koussouhon, L. (2008) « Reassessing the Language of “Abiku” (John Pepper Clark; Wole

Soyinka): A Systemic Functional Analysis ». iIn Langage & Devenir. N°12 Revue Semestrielle.

-Matthiessen, C.M.I.M. (2002): “Lexicogrammar in Discourse Development: Logogenetic

Patterns of Wording”. In Guowen Huang & Zongyan Wang (eds.) Discourse and

Language Functions. Shanghai: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press. pp 2-25.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE CONCEPT OF ROMANTIC LOVE AS DEPICTED IN AS YOU LIKE IT BY WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

Dr Ibrahim YEKINI,

Ecole Normale Supérieur, Porto-Novo

University of Abomey Calavi, Benin

 

Dr Franck MOUSTAPHA,

University of Abomey Calavi, Benin

 

Barnabe OLADJEHOU,

University of Abomey Calavi, Benin

 

Abstract

Love is a very complex theme to be dealt with. The definition of love is vague and yet so simple. Some may say that love is to be seen in the beauty of the world, in lover’s eyes. William Shakespeare’s concept of love in his play As You like It fits to the the pastoral story that involves exiles from urban or court life  to the refuge of the countryside through intrigues. This article is mainly concerned with the significance and manifestations of romantic love as depicted in the play.

Key words: Love – intrigues – beauty – countryside-romanticism

Résumé

L’amour est un thème complexe et sa définition peut paraître simple et vague à la fois. Dans ses manifestations, l’amour est perceptible dans la nature et sa beauté varie d’un amoureux à un autre. Dans son œuvre  As You Like It, le dramaturge anglais William shakespeare présente une version pastorale des facettes d’un amour né dans la cour royale et ses intrigues qui forcent les acteurs à l’exile dans la campagne. Cet article met en évidence le romantisme et ses manifestations dans l’œuvre.

Mots-clés : amour- beauté- campagne-romantisme- intrigues

Introduction

As You Like It was written around 1598-1600, during the last years of Elizabeth I’s reign, just after Shakespeare’s black time[1]. The play belongs to the literary tradition known as pastoral. Typically, a pastoral story involves exiles from urban or court life who flee to the refuge of the countryside,where they often disguise themselves as shepherds in order to converse with other shepherds on arrange of established topics, from the relative merits of life at court versus life in the country to the relationship between nature and art[2].

Generally the play, As You Like It examines the cruelties and corruption of court and gleefully pokes holes in one of human kind’s greatest artifices: the conventions of romantic love. The play’s investment in pastoral traditions leads to an indulgence. Love manifests itself in the play in many ways but striking kind of love is the love at first sight.

The reading of Shakespeare’s play has shown something exceptional that is the way he conceived love to put an end to the conflicts generated by the hatred of two different characters toward their respective brothers, and this happens without loss of lives.

  1. 1. Different Forms of Love with their Manifest ation in the Play

This article is primarily concerned with the manifestations of romantic love, nevertheles it is necessary to clarify some key concepts of other types of love.

2.1.  Impersonal Love

A person can be said country, principle, or goal if they value it greatly and are deeply committed to it. This form of love is known by a number of different terms; nationalism, dogma, or object orientation. All of these are of course a justification for war, thus demonstrating that war is the highest form of love. At present a significant proportion of the world involved in a war on terror, a terror is making love to us right back. People can also love material objects, animals, or activities. This is known as paraphilia, bestiality and auto eroticism.  In Shakespeare’s As You Like It, two characters display this type of love, that is Oliver de Boys and Duke Frederick, through their different behaviours.

Oliver’s behaviours through the play are guided by love for fortune. His father’s death enriched him. Indeed, because he is the oldest son, Oliver has inherited just about all of his dead father’s fortune and he’s also been put in charge by testament of looking after his little brothers Jacques and Orlando. Unfortunately Oliver did not succeed in doing so. He did everything to satisfy Jacques’ schooling and all his needs, and then neglected Orlando at home. The reason of such injustice is revealed in the prologue where Orlando expressed his grievance.

His horses are bred better,

For besides that they are fair with feeding,

They are taughttheir manage,

And to that end riders expensively hire.[3] Act I. I AYL

 

Oliver’s bad behaviour toward his brother hints at a larger social issue; primogeniture or the system in which all of a father’s wealth, land, and titles are passed down to the eldest son. That means that any sisters or younger brothers totally get the shaft. Shakespeare was really interested in the kinds of problems primogeniture could create. It came up inKing Lear (where Edmund was so bitter that he tried to destroy his older half-brother) and also in Henry IV, part I (where King Henry worries that his son, Prince Hal, was waiting for him to hurry up and die so he could inherit the crown)

Orlando, frustrated by the treatment given him by his eldest faced Orlando and claimed his rights. But as Oliver was committed to fortune, this claim of Orlando’s rights made him consider Orlando as a villainous contriver against him. As a result he planned for Orlando’s murder. In the first place, he tried to murder his brother by engaging the court wrestler, Charles, saying he would just have Charles ‘’break Orlando’s neck as his finger’’ act I. i AYL. Enjoying himself his victory of becoming alone to use all what his father left him, he said:

[…] I hope I shall see an end of him; for my soul… [4]

But Charles failed in the match. Next, Oliver plans to burn Orlando with his lodge at night after getting informed about Orlando’s victory. That second plan for Orlando’s death failed when Adam informed Orlando about it and both Adam and Orlando fled to the Forest of Arden. Then, Oliver felt pleased when Duke Frederick ordered him to search Orlando, his brother and bring him back alive or dead. Being proud of that recommendation, he obeyed the Duke and found himself in despair in Arden Forest. But unfortunately, instead of killing Orlando, it was Orlando who saved Oliver’s life from a hungry lioness. Thus making an analysis of the premature death that Orlando made him escape, Oliver abandoned his love for materials and fortune, and returned to Orlando his share or properties. Still another character, whose mind was guided by love for fortune, that is, Duke senior’s usurper, Duke Frederick.

The character of  Duke Frederick is conducted here by love for power in order to get a control on other people’s properties. To get the power into his control, Duke Frederick usurped his elder brother Duke Senior, stole his title, and then banished him from the court. To save his own life, the elder Duke, fled to the Forest of Arden leaving behind at the court his only daughter Rosalind who was a close friend to her cousin Celia, daughter of the Duke usurper. Not only that, but Duke Frederick also boosted Rosalind (his niece and his daughter’s beloved) out of his court, too. He did so because he was afraid Rosalind was more popular than Celia. Then he mounted an army that he led himself in order to capture or kill Duke Senior.

Besides, after he banished the old Duke from the Dukedom, Duke Frederick got enriched by the other people’s properties. When the legal Duke was off from the kingdom to the forest, some lords who knew his capacities followed him. Thus Charles informed us through his conversation with Oliver that the Lords’ lands and revenues enrich the new Duke[5]. Moreover, as Duke Frederick was maniac to the love for fortune, he did not content himself to all what he usurped from the banished Duke and his followers. But he seized Oliver’s land and all what belonged to him and then threw him out of the kingdom. Duke Frederick’s love for power and properties ended up when he met the religious. By the words of the religious man, the New Duke decided to change his evil ways. Duke Frederick gave up his material and power love and then became a very fair person by returning back all what owed people even the power.

 

2.2. Interpersonal Love

Interpersonal love refers to love between human beings but it does not necessarily equate with sex. It is a more potent sentiment than a simple liking for another. Interpersonal love is most closely associated with interpersonal relationships. Such love might exist between family members, friends, and couples. Interpersonal love includes the other types of love except impersonal love.

 

 

 

2.3. Familial Love

Familial love in As you like It is mainly shown through the characters of Rosalind, Celia, Orlando, and Duke Senior.

Celia and Rosalind are two cousins very close to each other from their childhood up to their marriage. Celia is the only daughter to Duke Frederick whereas Rosalind is the one to Duke Senior. In other words, they are daughters to the two brothers who are enemies. The banishments of  Duke Senior and Rosalind by Duke Frederick cast light on the true reciprocal love of Celia and Rosalind. When Rosalind’s father, Duke Senior was banished from the court, she found better to live with her cousin Celia at the court than following her father into exile. Reciprocally, Celia decided to follow Rosalind into exile than remaining at the court with her father Duke Frederick, when the latter banished Rosalind from the court. All these brought them joy and happiness.

Truly speaking, Rosalind loved intensely her father Duke Senior; she bore to live out of him because of Celia’s love. In the beginning, her father’s absence made her sad. When Celia asked her to be merry, she replied to her:

“Unless you could teach me to forget a banished father,

You must not learn me how to remember any extraordinary pleasure’’[6]

Nevertheless her sadness became appeased by Celia’s words. Following this, their relationship turned into an intimate one. Rosalind then forgot her father and lived with Celia. The two sisters shared ideas and confidences. For example, when Rosalind fell in love with Orlando, Celia kept it secretly. Analyzing this attitude of Celia, it can be said that Celia loved Rosalind in her turn. Yet, nothing had happened to show the sincerity of her love and their relationship commitment.

A while later Duke Frederic banished Rosalind from the court. But she did not go into exile alone, but with Celia because Celia could not bear to live out of Rosalind. She even disapproved her father’s attitude. In other words she was proving in adversity the truth of her love to Rosalind.This episode of exile is meant to show how committed the two cousins are to each other. They disguised themselves before going into the exile in the Forest of Arden. Rosalind disguised as a young boy called Ganymede, Celia as a young girl called Aliena. They went along with each other in the Forest. In that Forest Rosalind found her lover Orlando, which did not prevent the two sisters from being together. On the other side, Celia also fall in love with Oliver and their relationship did not affect the two sister’s permanent relationship. They remained close to each other till the day they got married to the two reconciled brothers Oliver and Orlando.

Orlando is also a character through whom familial love was taught.Orlando loved too much his brother Oliver who hated him and wrongly treated him that he risked his life to save him. Just as their father died, Oliver deprived Orlando from his rights such as, education, and care taking. Owing to this, Orlando felt grieved and he used violence to claim his rights. That grievance hided Orlando’s love and caused his exile in the Forest of Arden because Oliver plotted a murder against him.It is in exile Orlando displayed his love for Oliver. Oliver did not follow him into the exile. But he was sent in the false ruler Duke Frederick to find Orlando and bring him back dead or alive. This adventure of Oliver turned into a misadventure when he got tired after a long journey of walk. Getting tired, he found a place and starts sleeping. When sleeping, a hungry lioness was about to devour him when Orlando got there. Before saving him, Orlando had to defeat his self which was mixed up with his grievance. Then, without any fear he fought with the beast and killed it. This is the account:

Wice did he turn his back and purposed so;

But kindness, nobler ever than revenge,

And nature, stronger than his just occasion,

Made him give battle to the lioness,

Who quickly fell before him; …[7]

 

Nevertheless he risked his life because the beast wounded him. This risked love of Orlando affected Oliver that he radically changed from a wicked man into a good man. Thus the two brothers reconciled and became happy.

Similarly there is another brother like Orlando in another family that is Duke Senior. In fact, Duke Frederic wronged Duke Senior by usurping him the throne; then banished from the court, Duke Senior left behind him his only daughter in the court because of Celia, the only daughter of Duke Frederic. Frankly speaking, he wouldn’t have accepted to leave her daughter with his enemy’s daughter. This made light on his love for his brother Duke Frederic. Once in the Arden Forest, he did not even have the idea to attack him in order to get the crown back. Another occasion to take revenge came to him, when Celia appeared with Rosalind in the Forest of Arden for their distinct weddings but he did not react. He even took Celia, Duke Frederick’s daughter, like his own instead of hating her and preventing her from wedding. However, during the weddings he got the news that Duck Frederick converted into a religious man and was ready to give him back the crown and all that belonged to the lords who follow him.

2.4. Agape Love

Agape love is the highest form of love, charity; the love of God for man and of man for God.[8] Not to be confused with philia, brotherly love, agape embraces a universal, unconditional love that transcends, that serves regardless of circumstances.The Greek word agape is often translated “love” in the New Testament. The essence of agape love is goodwill, benevolence, and wilful delight in the object of love. Unlike English word love, agape is not used in the New Testament to refer to romantic or sexual love. Nor does it refer to close friendship or brotherly love, for which the Greek word philia is used. Agape love involves faithfulness, commitment, and an act of the will. It is distinguished from the other types of love by its lofty moral nature and strong character. Agape love is beautifully described in 1 Corinthians 13.

Outside of the New Testament, the word agape is used in a variety of contexts, but in the New Testament it takes on a distinct meaning. Agape is used to describe the love that is of and from God, whose very nature is love itself: “God is love” (1 John 4:8). God does not merely love; He is love itself. Everything God does flows from His love. Agape is also used to describe our love for God (Luke 10:27), a servant’s faithful respect to his master (Matthew 6:24), and a man’s attachment to things (John 3:19). But in As You Like It, agape love is portrayed mainly through the characters of Adam and Orlando, Duke Senior, and Rosalind.

Orlando and Adam were master and servant who firmly loved each other. Orlando was the youngest son of the dead Sir Rowland de Bois whereas Adam Orlando was an old servant to his father. Many things characterize their relationship. They were intimate to each other, preserved each other’s life from any harm, understood each other, and were ready to sacrifice one’s life to save the others, and so on.

In the prologue of the play, Adam, the servant was the only person with whom Orlando shared his grievance regarding the bad way Oliver treated him. After Orlando’s claim for his right, Oliver plotted a murder against him; Orlando escaped this because Adam, knowing about the matter, warned him. Then Orlando obediently fled into the Forest of Arden. And Adam, instead of staying with Oliver, chose to go along with Orlando. Truly speaking, he offered Orlando both his life and possessions. Making a share with Orlando, Adam said

I have five hundred crowns, the thrifty hire I saved under your father.

Here is the gold; all this I give you. Let me be your servant;though I look Old,Yet I am strong and lusty, let me go with you;master, go on,And I will Follow thee to the last gasp with truth and loyalty.Yet fortune cannot Recompense me better than to die well, and not my master’s debtor[9]

This shows how true Adam’s love for Orlando is.

Orlando, on the other side, displayed his true love for Adam in the Forest when the latter faced some adversaries which were hunger and death. Unable to continue the journey Adam said:

I can go no further.

O, I die for food

Here lie I down and measure out my grave.

Farewell, kind master,[10]

Those words from Adam excited Orlando’s love for his servant. He begged Adam to be comfortable and held death a while at his arm’s end for his sake till he would search and bring him food by all means. Thus Orlando left Adam for search of food. On his way he met Duke Senior, kind friend of his dead father who offered him a warm welcome. This gave him an opportunity to express his concern to Duke Senior. While expressing it, he compared his own concern to that of a mother for the weakness of her young. Owing to his kindness, Duke Senior asked Orlando to bring Adam who will be fed by him. This situation at once cast light on another case of agape love. It is that of Duke Senior.There is no limit for Duke Senior’s love. He loved everybody. He loved his lords and this was the reason why they put themselves into a voluntary exile with him. He also loved the dead Sir Rowland de Bois and showed it through his attitude toward his son Orlando. Consequently these loves of Duke Senior made everybody forget the injustice at the court and enjoy the forest life.

Another character that portrayed agape love is Rosalind. Her way of showing agape love consists in solving quarrels between young people. For instance, she solved a problem created by romantic relationship between two young people who are Silvius and Phebe. The matter is that when Silvius pined for Phebe’s love, Phebe scorned him. When Silvius exaggerated the power of love, Phebe grossly underestimated it.  Reacting to the fact that Silvius lost the sense of love’s absurdity, and Phebe’s cruelty toward her lover, said to Silvius:

‘’ you foolish shepherd, wherefore do you follow her, like foggy south, puffing wind and rain?’’

and to Phebe she said:

Down on your knees, and thank heaven,

Fasting, for a good man’s love!

For I must tell you friendly in your ear,

Sell when you can,

You are not for all markets.[11]

 

Finally, Rosalind disguised as Ganymede convinced Phebe then accepted Silvius and got married with him.

2.5. Courtly Love

The term « courtly love » (« l’amour courtois ») was coined by Gaston Paris in 1883 (in the journal Romania) and has since come under a wide variety of definitions and uses. Its interpretation, origins and influences continue to be a matter of critical debate so the first problem is that we tend to let the Victorians define it for us. The terms that appear in the actual medieval period are « Amour Honestus » (Honest Love) and « Fin Amor » (Refined Love).[12]

When Rosalind, Celia and Touchstone arrive in the Forest of Arden they meet Silvius and Corin, an old shepherd, who are engaged in a conversation about love. Corin is advising his friend on how to treat the woman he loves. However, Silvius doubts the old shepherd’s authority in such matters, for although Corin admits having been drawn into acts of madness for the sake of love during his youth; he cannot recall any of them. Silvius clearly manifests that if Corin has forgotten even the most insignificant detail of the actions love made him run into, and then he has never been truly in love. Even more, Silvius also explains that a true lover never ceases to adore his lady in speech, even if this moves his listener to discomfort, and further explains that sincere love may drive a lover to interrupt a conversation out of passion. To prove this last point, Silvius suddenly interrupts his speech passionately crying the name of Phebe, his beloved, several times.

Silvius reflects the behavior of the courtly lover, who is capable of the most foolish actions for the sake of his beloved, and who suffers the pangs of unrequited love and the abrupt separation from his lady. Rosalind disguised as Ganymede reacted toward Silvius’ attitude: ‘’ you foolish shepherd, wherefore do you follow her,like foggy south, puffing wind and rain?’’[13]

His only concern is love and, although he is uneducated, his language is lofty, poetic, and artificial when he speaks in praise of Phebe. Indeed, both Phebe and Silvius speak in elaborate verse in order to comply with the courtly love conventions. In their courtship, Silvius praises her virtues and begs for the slightest sign of affection, and Phebe scorns and rejects him all along. This romantic and artificial attitude towards love was often portrayed in pastoral romantic literature, and Silvius and Phebe were names often given to the lovers in such genre. Thus, it may be said that Silvius and Phebe represent stock characters, the typical characters in pastoral romances who acted out the conventions of the courtly love tradition.

2.6. Romantic Love

The last form of love which is going to be dealt with is romantic love. Four pairs of lovers are concerned with this Silvius and Phebe, Touchstone and Audrey, Orlando and Rosalind, and Oliver and Celia.

The first pair of romantic lovers is Silvius and Phebe. They are a conventional shepherd and shepherdess, and are from the pastoral tradition of idealized rural life. The kind of love between them is courtly one. In other words Silvius is a conventional pining lover whereas Phebe is a conventional scornful mistress. The romantic love which took Silvius shook him in such a way that he suffered and lamented after Phebe when the latter rejected him with bitter words. This is a loss of sense or folly even criticized by Rosalind. Rosalind insulted him foolish and stupid. This stupidity put Silvius at a blind service of Phebe. Phebe falling in love with Ganymede wrote a love note and sent it to him through Silvius. Ganymede, disapproving this, ensured the pining lover Silvius that the love existing between Silvius and Phebe was an unrequited love since Silvius loves Phebe strongly, and Phebe in her turn, wounded him with bitter words, but displayed a prompt love to Ganymede. This love was the instrument Ganymede used to play trick on Phebe to join her and Silvius.

The second pair of lovers is Touchstone and Audrey. Here they were not shepherd and shepherdess. Audrey was a real-life peasant goatherd, an ignorant country bumpkin whereas Touchstone was the one among all the exile court figures who was least able to accommodate him to the rustic way of life. They loved each other but Touchstone’s love was not a true one. Knowing nothing about the trick Touchstone played on her, Audrey was easily seduced by a series of concise scholastic witticisms made by Touchstone. Then Audrey followed blindly her suitor without knowing about this latter’s motives. In fact Touchstone’s cast of mind remained inveterately urban. His love for Audrey was crudely physical. He was armed with skepticism and wit. His detachment was not complete. He was quite explicit about the nature of his motives in his exchange with Jaques:

As the ox hath his bow, Sir, the horse his curb,

And the falcon her bells,So man hath his desires;

And as pigeons bill,So wedlock would be nibbling.[14]

Thus Touchstone’s love for Audrey was a mere “lust”.Touchstone behaved in such a way, because after he would have enjoyed perfectly well Audrey’s love, and abandon her. He invited an unworthy priest called Oliver Martext to couple them by knowing in his self that it would be a good excuse for him to leave his so-called wife. Yet, he did not succeed in doing so since his companion Jacques disapproved this and prevented him from being couple by Oliver Martext. Consequently Jacques counseled him, and as result Touchstone changed his mind, got wedded with Audrey and made sure to live with her forever.

Another pair of lovers is Orlando and Rosalind. They had a true love for each other which braved a series of obstacles, exerted its power on them differently and finally united them forever.

The adversity fire tried to separate them, but in vain. First, Orlando fled into the Forest of Arden leaving  Rosalind behind because he was warned by Adam about the murder Oliver plotted against him. Following this, Rosalind too, banished by her uncle Duke Frederick from the court, went into exile in the Forest of Arden without knowing that her beloved Orlando was not far from her in the same Forest. Though they were physically separated from each other, but their true feelings were not separated.

Out of the presence of Rosalind, Orlando could not bear to live; that’s why he displayed folly. In the Forest of Arden he took almost the trees barks as his thoughts that he exposed. He wrote praises in verses on Rosalind that he hanged on trees. The cause of this was that, Orlando thought he was able to contain the fire of love and love proved him that he was not. When Rosalind offered him a chain, love was already provoked in Orlando. Yet, Orlando hid it when Rosalind was quite sure she had already provoked love expecting an answer from him. Thus as romantic love is dangerous, it finally made Orlando fool and unbearable.

  1. 3. Forms of Romantic Love with their Manifestations in the play

There are as many theories about love as there are fish in the sea. According to Sigmund Freud, there are « two currents » of love, affection/tenderness and sensuality. « It is very usual for directly sexual impulsions, short-lived in themselves, to be transformed into a lasting and purely affectionate tie; and the consolidation of a passionate love marriage rests to a large extent upon this process. » [15]

There is no one true or definitive account of love, rather there are a limited and interconnected variety of love stories at work in any particular culture. It is okay for love to differ across relationships and to change its character with the passage of time–it’s equally acceptable for us to change our views of love as we go along. » What are the types of romantic love that are portrayed in As You Like It?

3.1. Trust, Recognition and Support

As You Like It is one of Shakespeare’s « marriage » comedies in which love’s complications end in recognition of the true identity of the lovers and celebration in marriage. This is a pattern still followed in today’s romantic comedies. This play can lead to discussions of the nature of true love versus romantic love. Indeed, after Rosalind and Orlando met at the court at their first sight, they did know their real identity each other. However, there is a trustful like that is established. This can be seen through the gift that Rosalind offered Orlando after the wrestling match. Giving him a chain from her neck she said:

Gentleman, wear this for me; one out of suits with fortune,

That could give more, but that her hand lacks means.

Shall we go coz?[16]

On those words, they got separated for a long period of time holding each other the trust link established at their very first and last meeting. Once in the Arden Forest, Orlando found himself in a very high loneliness; he was in need of the recognition of Rosalind’s true identity. Then he started verses about Rosalind on almost all the forest trees. When Rosalind disguised as a man with the name of Ganymede got in the same forest too, she found her name written on the trees.  After she was informed that the author of those verses was Orlando, she started looking for him in order to check up his right identity. When they met she asked him to woo Ganymede as he might woo Rosalind if she was present. Rosalind did everything to make Orlando show his true identity but Orlando did not care what Rosalind’s true identity was. Finally, after recognition, they started supporting. We can see Rosalind caring about the consequences of the fact that Orlando was wounded when he was trying to save his brother Orlando from the hungry lion. At the end of the play they get married.

3.2. Cupid’s Arrow

Love is intense passion and physical attraction that is nearly impossible to control. We lose sight of who we are and what we need. Romantic love base on cupid’s arrow is called lust. Lust is a strong desire of a sexual nature that is based on physical attraction and happens rather quickly. It is true that Lust is the first stage of falling in love. It is driven by desire; the sex hormones play an important role in this stage which makes sense. Some signsthat may make you know about cupid’s arrow are:

-You’re focused on the physical appearance of the person of your desire.

-There is a strong desire to have sex, but not deep emotional conversations.

-You’d rather keep the relationship on a fantasy level, not discuss real feelings.

-You are lovers, but not necessarily friends.

Lust can transform into love, but usually it takes time. Two individuals will transform their lust into love when they get to actually see the whole individual and get past the “fantasy level.”

Shakespeare in As You Like It portrayed this kind of romantic love especially through the characters of Touchstone and Audrey. In fact Touchstone did not bear in mind to marry Audrey but he is just physically attracted to her. Audrey was a real-life peasant goatherd, an ignorant country bumpkin whereas Touchstone was the one among all the exile court figures who was least able to accommodate him to the rustic way of life. They loved each other but Touchstone’s love was not a true one. Knowing nothing about the trick Touchstone played on her, Audrey was easily seduced by a series of concise scholastic witticisms made by Touchstone. Then Audrey followed blindly her suitor without knowing about this latter’s motives. In fact Touchstone’s cast of mind remained inveterately urban. His love for Audrey was crudely physical. But Audrey was too much interested in Touchstone. When she was not busy herding goats, she was getting cozy with Touchstone. Audrey was not particularly bright, so it was a bit of a surprise when witty Touchstone declared that he was going to marry her. Whereas Touchstone spent most of his time running linguistic circles around everyone, Audrey had a very hard time with basic vocabulary. As critic Anne Barton pointed out, poor « Audrey manages to misunderstand the words poetical, features, honest, and foul » the first time she appears on stage.

 

3.3. From Cupid’s Arrow to Role Bound Relationship

This relationship starts off with much passion and excitement, and then transforms into common man/woman roles, like husband and wife, mother and father etc. This relationship often becomes a disappointment as the excitement is lost when everyday life seems to eclipse it.

All the romantic relationships in Shakespeare’s As You Like It had fallen down to role-bound relationships even if those relationships did not get the same beginning. Though we don’t know what each couple became after the marriage, the prologue of the play was so sweet.

  1. 4. Shakespeare’s Vision of Romantic Love in As You It

Romantic love can generate many powerful feelings. It can provide a profound ecstasy, and a deep suffering when frustrated. To some people, romantic love is irrational. Romantic love can seem like an emotional storm. This chapter deals with the way Shakespeare views romantic love.

4.1. Romantic Love Involving Suffering

Through the four love relationships, Shakespeare shows us a reality of love, that is, the suffering that love involves most of the time. All through the playAs You Like It, romantically speaking, we saw male lovers such as Orlando, Oliver, and Silvius and even Audrey lamenting after their lovers just to be accepted.

However, Shakespeare’s vision about romantic love is strongly portrayed in a very strange way in Romeo and Juliet where apart from involving suffering, the lovers ended in death. In fact, Romantic love frequently ends in death, as in the tragedies, but such love may be presented in an idealized manner, shown to be courageous and unconditional. In Shakespeare’s romantic comedies, the traditional comic ending featuring one or more marriages is often tempered by a more serious note, which questions the finality of that ending. Additionally, the so-called « romantic » comedies may feature a certain degree of tension between romantic and anti-romantic elements. Marriage typically viewed as the goal of romantic love is also treated ambiguously by Shakespeare. In many of Shakespeare’s comedies and tragedies, marriages are frequently disrupted by the husband’s usually irrational fear of being cuckolded. Despite the taint on marriage by the spectre of cuckoldry or by other subversions, marriage nevertheless occupies a central role in Shakespeare’s work

4.2. Romantic Love as a Tool of Reconciliation

There cannot be reconciliation without division. As You Like It is a play that opened with a great misunderstanding between two families that is the Boys and the Dukes. That misunderstanding destroyed harmony and relationships. In most of Shakespeare’s plays, romantic love ending in either marriage or death that triumphs over hatred between two families and reconciles them. Here, Dukes’family and Sir de Bois’ family are brought together by the marriage of their offsprings. Orlando and Oliver, sons of de Bois got married respectively with Rosalind and Celia, daughters of the Dukes.The same situation prevailed in Romeo and Juliet but the difference here is the death of both lovers. In fact, the two families Capulet and Montague make peace with each other after witnessing that their children who were so in love with each other sacrificed their lives for one another. Regarding all these, Shakespeare’s vision of love is that, love is able to destroy.

Love is then a powerful tool of reconciliation when it is characterized by forgiveness, sacrifice, commitment no matter the situation, and marriage. Moving from this part, the next part will be concerned with the conclusion of the research work.

 

CONCLUSION

Although there is no exhaustive definition of love, it is important to realise that Love is a variety of different feelings, states, and attitudes that ranges from impersonal affection to interpersonal affection and from interpersonal affection to pleasure. It is a powerful way to express our capacity to love and to be loved, and it is to be experienced instead of being spoken. William Shakespeare’s As You Like It is simply centered on the concept of love. In other words, the theme of love is central to the play, and nearly every scene makes reference to it in one way or another. Shakespeare uses a range of different perceptions and presentations of love in the play; everything from the bawdy love of the lower class characters to the courtly love of the nobles. As he used to do in his other comedies, Shakespeare through this studied play shows us that love has too many facets that is impersonal love and interpersonal love. His treatment of love in his plays and sonnets is remarkable for the time: he mixes non sexual love and sexual love with skill and heart. For Shakespeare love is a force of nature, earthy and sometimes uneasy. However, romantic love remains a concept in its own right.

Romantic love is a way to focus our energy, our curiosity, and our desire for adventure. It is also a source of pleasure and inspiration and is worth pursuing. Romantic love confirms our lovable and capable nature. In short words, Romantic love is a blessing of life. But it is very common to hear these days that romance is dead, or that love relationships of the present age just do not have the passion of the old days. But how true is that? Were relationships of the past so filled with romance and so perfect as often described? The truth is, all those amazing love stories that are told in great novels and movies, even when real, are the rarest of relationships. From an early age, a perception is created in people’s minds about love relationships, that it should all be as in fairy tales or in a romance; that love, when it comes, will be forever and will be a perfect and a smooth ride. Human beings are not perfect; therefore their relationships can’t be perfect either.

Realities show that we are not much different from people who lived centuries ago; our core is still the same, our desires and feelings are unchanged. What has truly progressed, on the other hand, is a society which has now a different set of values that changed the way people perceive love. But a few decades ago, there was not internet love but today, things have rustically changed and people look for the soul mate on internet. If things continue that way people will not cease to be deceived.

Dealing with romantic love with Shakespeare is not an easy matter. However his vision of romantic love in As You Like It seems to be same as his vision of love in his tragedies and sonnets. His vision may be summed up as: whatever love is, there are advantages and drawbacks. Not only is love a source of joy and reconciliation but it is also a root of misfortunes.

Love is a universal concept. Shakespeare through As You Like It has just done like other writers, singers who have already dealt with romantic love. But Shakespeare had used his play to show off what had happened in the society during his time. But that revelation of still exist today even if there is a little changes in the manner people love today.

 

References

–          Adrews, John. Romeo and Juliet: critical Essays, New York and London, Garland Publishing, 1993

–          Alexander, Catherine M.S and Wells, Stanley, Shakespeare and Sexuality. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

–          Baier, A Progress of Sentiments: Reflections on Hume’s Treatise. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1991.

–          Brentlinger, John A. “Afterward: The Nature of Love.” The Symposium of Plato.Trans.Suzy Q. Groden. Ed. John A. Brentlinger. Amherst: U Massachusetts P,1970.113-29.

–          Clark, Nick (13 November 2013). « Shakespeare in Love to get West End play ». The Independent. Retrieved 30 March 2015.

–          Dickens, Charles. Great Expectations. Margaret Cardwell. Oxford :OUP( Oxford’s word classics).1994

–          Elvelyn Gajowski, Human Affliction and the Wedge of Gender, in The Art of Loving: The Female Subjectivity and Male Discursive Traditions in Shakespeare’s Tragedies, University of Delaware Press, 1992, PP 20-26

–          Frankfurt, Harry G. The Reasons of Love. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2004.

–          Frankfurt, Harry G. The Importance of What We Care About. New York: CambridgeUP, 1988.

–          Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice. New York: Modern Library, 1995

–          Kittay, Eva Feder. Love’s Labor: Essays on Women, Equality, and Dependency. NewnYork: Routledge, 1999.

–          Kolodny, Niko. “Love as Valuing a Relationship.” The Philosophical Review 112.2(Apr. 2003): 135-89.

Lee John A. The Colors of Love. New York. Prentice-Hall.1976

–          Martina Hrubes, Great Expectations: The Strange Romance of Pip to and Estella. 2003

–          Quine, Warren. Morality and Action. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993.

–          Rose, Jacqueline ‘’Sexuality in the Reading of Shakespeare: Hamlet and Mesure of Mesure.’’In Alternative Shakespeares. London, Routledge 1985.

–          Solomon, Robert C. About Love: Reinventing Romance for Our Times. New York: Simon and Schuster,1989.

–          Sternberg. Robert J Triangulating Love. In Ord, T.J. The Altrium reader. Selections from Writings on Love, Religion, and Science. West. Coushohocken. PA: Templeton Foundation  p.332, 2007.

–          Thomas Jay Oord.The love racket: Defining love and agape for the love-and-science research program », Zygon, vol. 40, no. 4 (December 2005), pp. 919-938

–          Thomas Lodge, Rosalynde, in Geoffrey Bullough, ed., Narrative and Dramatic Sources of Shakespeare, 8 vols., 2: The Comedies, 1597-1603 (New York: Columbia Univ. Press, 1958)

–          Wiggins, David. Needs, Values, Truth. 3rd ed. New York: Oxford UP, 1998.

 


TEACHING EFL THROUGH SEVENTEEN GAMES

IN PORTO-NOVO AND ITS SUBURBS :

ADVANTAGES AND DRAWBACKS

 

Dr Evariste Assogba KOTTIN

Faculté des Lettres, Arts et Sciences Humaines, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin

Abstract

This article aims at exploring more heart hilarity engendered by the appropriate utilisation of games in Beninese secondary schools’ teaching system in general, and the one of Porto-Novo in particular. It is obvious that teaching EFL through games fosters learners’ motivation and interest in the English language learning but parapets are to be settled so as to prevent noticeable drawbacks like too much joke and too many mechanical aspects. The seventeen games selected are very useful to help the students prove their strong will to learn the English language and their adaptability to the real language learning context.

Key words : Games; hilarity; misconception; group dynamics; Adaptability.

Résumé

Cet article a pour objectif d’étudier davantage l’hilarité du cœur déclenchée par l’utilisation appropriée des jeux dans le système éducatif des établissements secondaires du Bénin en général et celui de Porto-Novo en particulier. Il est évident que, enseigner aux apprenants de l’anglais langue étrangère à travers les jeux, encourage leur motivation et développe  leur intérêt dans l’apprentissage de la langue anglaise mais des parapets sont à mettre en place afin d’éviter des inconvénients remarquables comme l’excès de plaisanterie et trop d’aspects mécaniques. Les dix-sept jeux sélectionnés sont très utiles pour aider les apprenants à montrer leur solide volonté à l’apprentissage de la langue anglaise et leur adaptabilité au contexte réel de l’apprentissage de cette langue.

Mots clés : jeux; hilarité; mauvaise conception; dynamique du group; Adaptabilité.

Introduction

Language teaching and learning has always been discussed by very brilliant researchers without total success and still raises a lot of meditation and criticism. In his article ‘Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom’ -The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, Aydan Ersoz (2000) said :

‘Language learning is a hard task which can sometimes be frustrating. Constant effort is required to understand, produce and manipulate the target language. Well-chosen games are invaluable as they give students a break and at the same time allow them to practise language skills. Games are highly motivating since they are amusing and at the same time challenging. Furthermore, they employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts. They also encourage and increase cooperation.’

‘Games are highly motivating because they are amusing and interesting. They can be used to give practice in all language skills and be used to practice many types of communication. (p. 5)

Games are ‘motivating’ means that learners are motivated while learning through games. Games are ‘amusing’ means that learners entertain themselves through games,  and games are ‘challenging’ means that the learners have to show their competences and abilities for using these games to learn adequately the English language. Learners ‘employ meaningful and useful language in real contexts.’ Since the sentences they use are the ones well-built by the teacher, and the students read what they can see, they are meaningful and useful to be employed in the English language. How to make these learners not just use the games mechanically? This is one of the concerns for the current study. Another step of concern is to know how to make the students practise many types of communication.

I- Critical literature review and methodology

Many researchers dealt with the importance of teaching through games. Lee Su Kim (1995), for example, in his ‘Forum’, ‘Creative Games for the Language Class’ stated :

‘There is a common perception that all learning should be serious and solemn in nature, and that if one is having fun and there is hilarity and laughter, then it is not really learning. This is a misconception. It is possible to learn a language as well as enjoy oneself at the same time. One of the best ways of doing this is through games.’ (p. 35).

This idea is related to the one of M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher (1997) in their ‘Forum’ ‘Index Cards: A Natural Resource for Teachers’

‘In an effort to supplement lesson plans in the EFL classroom, teachers often turn to games. The justification for using games in the classroom has been well demonstrated as benefiting students in a variety of ways. These benefits range from cognitive aspects of language learning to more co-operative group dynamics.’ (p.42)

On the same page of the ‘Forum’, M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher (1997) pointed out some General Benefits of Games :

Affective:

– encourages creative and spontaneous use of language

– promotes communicative competence

– motivates

Cognitive:

– reinforces

– reviews and extends

– focuses on grammar communicatively

Class Dynamics:

– student centered

– teacher acts only as facilitator

– builds class cohesion

– fosters whole class participation

– promotes healthy competition

 

Adaptability:

– easily adjusted for age, level, and interests

– utilizes all four skills

– requires minimum preparation after development

What is specific in this study is the deepest care which deserves to be taken of the difficulties teachers can come across while using games in EFL classes. Almost all learners in Porto-Novo and its suburbs make too much fun of many adequate English pronunciations because they are accustomed to pronouncing words like French ones. The good pronunciation may regularly appear odd to them. Some will even be taunting the teacher, so he or she should mix rigor and flexibility and give a limit to laughter raised by the use of games in teaching.

Students can also learn through sports. The title of the article : « Context of handball practice and level of integration of fitness capacities to training schedules among players in southern Benin » (DOI : 10.7752/jpes.2014.03057 ; Art-57, pp.371-381 by Basile KOCOU NOUATIN et al (2014) reveals the importance of handball. And fun occurs in games, which is also important in learning. In Léonard A. Koussouhon and Moustafa Guézohouèzon’s article (2016) : « Human Comedy in Wole Soyinka’ Jero’s metamorphosis : A Pragmatic Analysis », it was revealed that Soyinka was an alert satirist who made fun of social maladies while indirectly wiping them away from the human psyche. When teaching through games, it is advisable to be serious and show Beninese secondary school learners the true aspect of life, warning them not only to joke but especially to draw pieces of advice and good and useful lessons from games, which should make them avoid bad attitudes and behave well in society.

 

II- Presentation and illustration of the games

Many games are very helpful to learners of the English language in general and especially to EFL learners because of their prominence in teaching/learning process. Among these games, we can mention :

Game 01: Word Prompts

This game is really profitable to EFL learners of Benin for many reasons. First and foremost, word prompts can enable EFL learners to listen to the speaker of English and succeed in knowing the right words and their right pronunciation whenever these learners guess well. They will learn homophones, synonyms, antonyms and many other vocabulary items accordingly. This game will make students think in the right way. The way word prompts are played is explained as follows : Students from Team (B) have to guess the words on the teacher’s list. Before each member guesses, the teacher says a word which will help Team (B) to guess correctly. But the teacher must not say the word on his/her list. Students from team (A) have to guess the words on the teacher’s list. Before each team member guesses, the teacher says a word which will help team (A) to guess correctly. But he/she does not say the word on his/her list.[17]

 

Game 02 Kim’s game (longer & longer lists) see Rudyard Kipling for origin of this game

This game will foster the learners’ participation and it will train them to use the words in the right place according to their nature. It will allow the learners to make personal efforts and really grasp the correct and meaningful words.

 

 

Game 03 guessing nouns via » Is it + adjective » questions[18]

Guessing Games: Vocabulary. Questions with Adjectives

Through these games, learners can acquire a lot of language skills and abilities. They can acquire a good listening skill because when the teacher asks the suitable questions and they answer well, this means that they discover the right pronunciation of the words used by the teacher. These guessing games enable learners to reflect in the right way and guess the correct words where they are necessary. Consequently, they develop the skill of speaking because, they will use the words in their right place and when they are required to do so. They will read the words well and will be able to use them in writing, too.

 

Game 04 Connection game (I can sell + LIST)

This game can develop different language skills and abilities because it makes students interact efficiently. When students guess the right connection of words, they can complete the sentences adequately and can develop the abilities to make correct and meaningful sentences.

 

Game 05 Comparisons: How is XXX like YYY?

If learners are able to establish comparisons between words, it will be useful for them to distinguish differences and similarities between them. These abilities will permit them to learn and acquire the English language successfully.[19]

 

Game 06 BLIP (sometimes known as COFFEE POT) Guess the verb

Through this game, the learners discover the right meaning of the target verb and they develop the abilities of using the suitable words and making correct and meaningful sentences.

 

Game 07 Guess the adverb

This game permits the students to identify different actions and the way they are performed. This ability fosters the contextualization of teaching/learning process, which is very important to language learning in Beninese secondary schools.[20]

 

 

Game 08 The Preposition Game

The Preposition Game enables the learner to identify the right places and the correct uses of prepositions. For example, the learners of Porto-Novo and its suburbs will be more motivated when these prepositions are taught to them using the names of their areas’ places.[21]

 

Game 09 Classroom observation

Here, learners play the roles of the teacher and the learners get involved in the teaching/learning process. The learners will learn and acquire the language skills and abilities successfully. There will be certainly a lot of mispronunciations which must be corrected without frustrating the learners because errors and mistakes are positive in the learning of a language.

 

Game 10 Simon says (Action verbs + Parts of the body)

Simon says game makes learners recognize actions and related verbs, which will encourage adequate uses of verbs in their right context. This right usage of verbs will help the learners develop language skills and abilities.

Game 11 TELEGRAMS / MESSAGES / ANAGRAMS

This game permits the learners to create and it enables them to reflect and to be original. It makes other people reflect as well before succeeding in finding the right words. For example, the learners of Porto-Novo and its suburbs can make people guess these messages and anagrams: [22]

Telegrams / messages

PORTO-NOVO : People Organise Rare Travels On New Origins Very Often.

TCHEMEY : Teach Carefully Him English Moving Every Year.

DOWEMEY :Discover the Orientation of What Every Man Edits Yearly.

NOUNAGONDE : No Office Under Nice Aged Groups Of Non-Development Elements.

SOTTA : Sons Of Total Terrorism Attackers.

ADJARRA : Association of Developmental and Joyful Activities in the Range of Renewed Areas.

TANME : Take Another Name for More Evidence.

AKLEKO : Any Key doesn’t Last, Especially the Key to Open.

MALANHOUI : Move At Last And a New Heart Over Universal Intelligence.

GBAGNITO : Give Both Ability and Gesture to Nature In Total Organisation.

SAYOKO : See Alone Your Own Kisses Only.

HOUINME : Hate Offence Under Its Natural Meaning and Evil.

AGLOGBE : Allow Girls to Love Their Origin and General Background Entertainments.

MEDEDJONOU : Man Energy Develops Early the Data of Joyful Origins and Nations Of Univers.

TCHAKOU : Take and Catch his Heart At Key Origins in Univers.

OGANLA : Oriented Girls At Non-Lasting Activities.

DAVIE : Drawing A Very Interesting Education.

AKPASSA : Any Key and Public Actors See Some Activities.

ADJINA : Aknowledgement of Dynamic Joy and Intelligence of Nation Authorities.

AGBOTO : Advice to Girls and Boys On Total Organisation.

COULETO : Cite Old and Useful Local, Electrical and Technological Organisations.

DJAVI : Do Joyful Activities for your Very Interest.

SADO : See Another Domain Originally.

CATCHI : Care for Another Type of Change and Hold It.

OUANDO : Other Ulterior Actions against Non-Developmental Organisations.

OUANHO : Other Ulterior Actions against Naturally Horrible Organisations.

GBODJE : Get Beautiful Offices Daily to Jeopardize Evil.

DANTO : Do Another Natural Thing Officially.

DANGBO : Deliver Actually your Nations’ Girls and Boys Officially.

ADJOHOUN : Actions for Development to Jeopardize Ordinary and Horrible Ownerships Usually Natural.

GBADA : Girls and Boys Actions to Develop Areas.

MISSRETE : Man’s Interests in Some Serious Resources for Energy, Technology and Economy.

GOUAKO : Give Other Uses Actively to Key Organisations.

NADJO : National Agence to Develop Joyful Organisations.

DJLADO : Delivery from Jeopardization of Literary Actions to Development’s Organisations.

DODJI : Demonstrate Other Deeds against Jeopardized Interests.

HLOGOU : Hostilities between Local Officials to Give Orientations Universally.

KOUTONGBE : Known Origins Usually Transmitted to Owners of Nations for Girls and Boys Education.

TOKPOTA : Take Other Keys Publicly On Techniques and Administration.

AYIMLONFIDE : Angry Youths Interestingly Move to Local Origins of Nations to Fight Interpersonal Dangerous events.

AGATA : Actions for Girls Against Theft and Anger.

KANDEVIE : Known Actions for National Development for Educating Very Importantly and Early.

DANGBEKLOUNON : Dangerous Activities for Nations’ Girls and Boys Educated Kilometers away from their Localities to Other Useful Norms Only for Nations.

 

N.B. All these Names used as acronyms, are the names of Porto-Novo’s suburbs. They are the names of Porto-Novo’s areas, where we can sometimes see more than one or two public secondary schools well-equiped and well-located. This game will definitely prepare the learners living in Porto-Novo and its suburbs to know the different places of Porto-Novo and to guess the English words which will be suitable and related to the different letters of the places’ names. The learners from these regions will be delighted to write about their towns, villages and quarters.

ANAGRAMS

Table 1: Anagrams and Results

 

ANAGRAMS

 

RESULTS:

1- DAARJRA

ADJARRA

2- OSOUSD

DOSSOU

3- TSTOA

SOTTA

4- SPKOSUO

KPOSSOU

5- DEKTIONOK

KINTODEKO

6- EHDA

HEAD

7- ERAIGNR

EARRING

8- ESE

SEE

9- TAE

EAT/ ATE

10- KEAT

TAKE

11- GTHIL

LIGHT

12- FTIG

GIFT

 

N.B. This game will make learners accustomed to many words’ spellings and guess and keep in mind their uses and meanings.

 

Game 12 Find your partner (Stick self adhesive labels to Ss’ backs)

The twelfth game favours the Student’s Talking Time, which is required for the English language learning.[23]

 

Game 13 What’s my nationality? Who am I?

This game helps learners to recognise people and their nationalities, and this ability is part of successful language learning.

 

Game 14 What’s my job? (from open lists) Guessing games (closed lists)

Guessing games permit learners to identify categories of jobs and the way these jobs are performed. They will permit them to describe other jobs practised in their areas.

 

Game 15 The Airline HELP desk – miming

The Airline HELP desk – miming game is necessary for language learning because it prepares learners to problem solving abilities.

 

Game 17 Word in edgeways (Conversation game)

The Word in edgeways (Conversation game) will permit the learners to use the English language effectively because they have the opportunity to move the conversation to the adequate context.

 

Summary and conclusion

Summary

Table 2: Games: Advantages; drawbacks and solutions.

Advantages of games

Drawbacks of games

Solutions

A-

1- Courage to face hard events.

2- Creative and spontaneous use of language.

3- Fun

Less fear or even absence of fear to almost all dangers.

Repetition like parrots without sometimes knowing the words’ true meaning.

Habit of making fun of everything.

Advice about fiction and real events.

Use of dictionaries and learning the words’ pronunciation.

 

Distinguishing the time of joke from the one of work.

 

Interpretation

1- While learners are practicing games, they have courage to face hard events and they get used to playing the roles of good and bad characters, which may train them to good as well as bad behaviours. To prevent the bad aspects of games, teachers’ responsibilities are to give these learners pieces of advice about fiction and real events, in order to behave in the right way when they come across dangers really.

2- Learners use language creatively and spontaneously. They repeat words and sentences like parrots and hardly master the true meaning. To avoid this difficulty, learners can look up the words in the dictionaries and be helped to learn their pronunciation.

3- The learners joke a lot and entertain well but want to make fun of everything. So it is important to draw their attention on the time of joke and the one of work. 

Conclusion

‘Many experienced textbook and methodology manuals writers have argued that games are not just time-filling activities but have a great educational value. W. R. Lee holds that most language games make learners use the language instead of thinking about learning the correct forms (1979:2). He also says that games should be treated as central not peripheral to the foreign language teaching programme. A similar opinion is expressed by Richard-Amato, who believes games to be fun but warns against overlooking their pedagogical value, particularly in foreign language teaching. There are many advantages of using games. « Games can lower anxiety, thus making the acquisition of input more likely » (Richard-Amato 1988:147). They are highly motivating and entertaining, and they can give shy students more opportunity to express their opinions and feelings (Hansen 1994:118).

Nowadays, the behaviours of Porto-Novo’s secondary school learners are seriously affected by a lot of youths’ problems such as drugs, delinquencies, prostitutions, and consequently it becomes very hard to canalize these learners, especially when their teachers are using games to teach them. It is then important to sensitize them in order to prevent them from using drugs, alcohol and give them many pieces of advice accordingly.

 

References

1-      From ‘Games for Language Learning’ by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby Cambridge University Press, 1984.

2-      From ‘Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom’ by Aydan Ersoz
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.

3-      From ‘Creative Games for the Language Class’ by Lee Su Kim ‘Forum’ Vol. 33 No 1, January – March 1995, Page 35.

4-      From ‘The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision’ by Agnieszka Uberman ‘Forum’ Vol. 36 No 1, January – March 1998 Page 20.

5-      From ‘Learning Vocabulary Through Games’ by Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga ‘Asian EFL Journal’ – December 2003.

6-      From ‘Using Games in an EFL Class for Children’ by Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-jing
Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Fall, 2000.

7-      From ‘Index Cards: A Natural Resource for Teachers’ by M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher ‘Forum’ Vol. 35 No 4, October – December 1997 Page 42.
Publication Details: ‘Games for Language Learning’ (2nd. Ed.) by Andrew Wright, David Betteridge and Michael Buckby. Cambridge University Press, 1984.

8-      ‘Six Games for the EFL/ESL Classroom‘ by Aydan Ersoz. 
The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. VI, No. 6, June 2000.

9-      ‘Creative Games for the Language Class‘ by Lee Su Kim. ‘Forum’ Vol. 33 No 1, January – March 1995, Page 35.

10-  ‘The Use of Games For Vocabulary Presentation and Revision‘ by Agnieszka berman. ‘Forum’ Vol. 36 No 1, January – March 1998 Page 20.

11-  ‘Learning Vocabulary Through Games‘ by Nguyen Thi Thanh Huyen and Khuat Thi Thu Nga. ‘Asian EFL Journal’ – December 2003 ‘Using Games in an EFL Class for Children‘ by Yin Yong Mei and Jang Yu-jing. Daejin University ELT Research Paper. Fall, 2000.

12-  ‘Index Cards: A Natural Resource for Teachers‘ by M. Martha Lengeling and Casey Malarcher ‘Forum’ Vol. 35 No 4, October – December 1997 Page 42.

APPENDICES

01      Word Prompts

 

Team A

Team B

YOUR LIST (Team B must guess)

YOUR LIST (Team A must guess)

A1 horse

B1 car

A2 window

B2 beer

A3 elephant

B3 cup

A4 England

B4 floor

A5 teacher

B5 kangaroo

A6 London

B6 lemon

A7 river

B7 Russia

A8 book

B8 ice cream

A9 dog

B9 mouse

A10 karate

B10 bath

2. Kim’s game (longer & longer lists) see Rudyard Kipling

for origin of game

In my [pocket] [shopping bag] [house] [garden] [country] [dream], there is / are / was /were

(The teacher imposes the necessary restrictions according to the vocabulary area)

I packed my bag and in it I put:

an X (longer & longer list)

an X and some Ys.

an X, some Ys, a Z, an ___ and some _____s

(As the teacher goes round the class, each student has to recite the existing list and add an item in the same category).

03 Guessing Games: Vocabulary. Questions with ADJECTIVES

Group A

Questions to ask opposing team(s)

1. chair

Ask YES/NO questions:

2. bus

Is it big / round /square / rectangular?

3. head

Is there one in this room?

4. bicycle

Can we eat it?

5. computer

Is it made of wood / plastic / metal?

6. chocolate

Ask your own questions

Group B

Questions to ask opposing team(s)

1. tree

Ask YES/NO questions:

2. shoe

Is it small/yellow/light/dark/circular?

3. tea

Have you one in your house / country?

4. knife

Do you like it?

5. finger

Is it used every day?

6. button

Ask your own questions

Group C

Questions to ask opposing team(s)

1. bench

Ask YES/NO questions:

2. pen

Is it larger than a chair?

3. mouse

Can I see one now?

4. coffee

Do you find it indoors or outdoors?

5. jumbo jet

Are there a lot of them in this school?

6. mobile phone

Ask your own questions:

Group D

Questions to ask opposing team(s)

1. cat

Ask YES/NO questions:

2. house

Is it hard / soft / high / tall / low ?

3. gate

Is it liquid or solid?

4. guitar

Do I see one every day?

5. sugar

Have you got one in your house / with you?

6. washing machine

Ask your own questions:

04

Market trader: guess the connection (I can sell + LIST)

Ss: I’m a market trader and I can sell (camcorders) (compact disks) (televisions).

T: That’s right. You can.

Ss: I’m a market trader and I can sell (steam engines) (saucepans) (guitars)

T: No you can’t.

CONNECTION: Invented after 1900.

Other possible restrictions

1. objects must begin with the same letter as the S’s first name.

2. objects must begin with the same letter as the first name of S on the right of speaker.

3. must be in the room

4. must be made of special material / must include wood or metal

5. must be objects you can grow.

 

Instructions

Each student has a turn of saying « I’m a market trader and I can sell…. »

The person who knows the connection (T or S) gives feedback (Yes, you can or No, you can’t.

The students must guess the connection. Either call it out or write it down after a reasonable number of examples have been given.

 

 

 

 

 

05

Comparisons: How is XXX like YYY?

Finding Connections (Word Fields and Adjective Comparisons

Group A

How is XXX like YYY?

 

How does XXX differ from YYY?

X

Y

X

Y

1. milk

Cheese

3. café

restaurant

2. computer

Television

4. umbrella

sunshade

Group B

How is XXX like YYY?

 

How does XXX differ from YYY?

X

Y

X

Y

1. kettle

Teapot

3. doctor

dentist

2. moustache

Beard

4. cooker

fridge

Group C

How is XXX like YYY?

 

How does XXX differ from YYY?

X

Y

X

Y

1. horse

Dog

3. beer

whisky

2. sock

Stocking

4. wristwatch

egg-timer

Group D

How is XXX like YYY?

 

How does XXX differ from YYY?

X

Y

X

Y

1. ice

Snow

3. dictionary

encyclopaedia

2. chemist

Pharmacist

4. record

compact disk

06

BLIP (sometimes known as COFFEE POT) Guess the verb

 

Each student is given a VERB. (See that it is suitable for the level of the class).

In pairs or as a whole class, discover the VERB through QUESTIONS.

The nonsense word « BLIP » should be substituted for the target VERB.

Write sample QUESTIONS on the board

When / Where / Why / How do you blip?

Can you blip someone / something / somewhere?

Do you often blip?

Did you blip yesterday?

Are you blipping now?

Are you going to blip this weekend?

Have you blipped since you arrived in England?

Do you like blipping?

Do you blip with your hands?

If I saw you blipping, would you be embarrassed?

 

The aim of the game is not to guess the meaning of the word « Blip » straight away. When you think you know the meaning of the word « Blip », you could ask further questions which make the meaning of the word « Blip » clear to the rest of the class or which amuse the student who is answering the questions.

Sample Verbs

Cook

Live

cry

Love

dance

Read

Draw

run

Dream

shout

Drink

Sing

drive

Sleep

eat

Swim

Fight

talk

Fish

think

Fly

Undress

jump

Worry

kiss

Argue

Paint

bathe

Plan

complain

Rest

Diet

scream

Explore

Sew

Fidget

Smile

translate

Hesitate

understand

Iron

Vacuum

joke

Whisper

Knit

Win

Move

yell

Oversleep

Zigzag

07 Guess the ADVERB

One student goes out of the room. The rest of the class think of an adverb or the teacher selects one and writes it on the board for everybody to see. It is rubbed off the board before the student outside returns.

The returned student asks a variety of questions to different students. They all answer in the manner suggested by the adverb.

Alternatively, the returned student can ask members of the class to do things. They then have to perform the actions in the manner suggested by the adverb.

After hearing a sample of answers or observing a sample of actions performed by different students, the student who originally left the classroom is then asked to guess the adverb.

Quickly

Slowly

noisily

Quietly

Angrily

Politely

Sadly

happily

Sleepily

Shyly

Loudly

Rudely

drunkenly

Nervously

romantically

Confidently

Anxiously

hesitantly

Calmly

lovingly

Doubtfully

ungrammatically

warmly

Coldly

Timidly

08

The Preposition Game

The teacher thinks of a room of a house and a hiding-place in which to hide an object.

(1) I’ve hidden YOUR BIRTHDAY PRESENT and today is YOUR BIRTHDAY!

Ss: Have you put it __________________________?

(2) I hid my mother’s Christmas present LAST CHRISTMAS!

Ss: Did you put it ____________________________?

(3) I’m going to hide my brother’s Christmas present NEXT CHRISTMAS!

Ss: Are you going to put it ________________________?

(4) EVERY CHRISTMAS, my uncle hides my present!

Ss: Does he put it ________________________________?

Practise different tenses. A student can choose a hiding-place and the rest of the class can ask the questions. Alternatively, students can work in pairs.

09

Classroom observation

 

Seat TWO students at the front of the class facing the white/black board with the other students looking on. The two students are both given a chance to answer each question and they are awarded points for correct answers.

Sample Questions

1. How many windows / tables / chairs / students are there?

2. What are their names?

3. Who is sitting next to Z / between X and Y / opposite X / on the left / on the right?

4. What is (s)he wearing? / What colour is Z’s shirt.

Alternatively, seat students in pairs back to back and issue them with a checklist of vocabulary for describing physical appearance and clothing:

Height tall/short

Build well-built

Age middle-aged

Hair style curly

Hair length long

Eyes large-eyed

Shape of head oval

Complexion fresh

 

Article of clothing

Material

Pattern

Colour

shirt / skirt etc

dark green

plain /checked

light blue

Ask them to describe each other using suitable words from each category.

 

I spy with my little eye – something beginning with + letter ABC

The objects sighted must be in view of all the students in the classroom.

10

Simon says (Action verbs + Parts of the body)

Students should only obey the commands if you preface each one with Simon says. If you omit the preface Simon says any student who obeys the command can no longer participate in the game. The last student to remain in the game is the winner.

Simon says: « hands up », « hands down », « thumbs up », « thumbs down », « fingers up », « fingers down ».

Simon says: « touch your eyes / ears / nose / mouth with the forefinger / middle finger / ring finger / little finger / of your (right) (left) hand.

Simon says: « put your right hand / left hand / both hands on your right / left knee. »

Simon says: « shut / open your eyes », « stand up / sit down », « stand on your right / left leg ».

Simon says: « bend your knees / body », « straighten your knees / body ».

Simon says: « fold your arms », « put your arms by your side ».

Simon says: « wave your right hand », « STOP », « jump up and down », « STOP ».

Simon says: « point at the ceiling / floor with the forefinger/ middle finger / ring finger / little finger / of your right / left hand.

11

TELEGRAMS / MESSAGES / ANAGRAMS

TELEGRAMS / MESSAGES

Each student tries to write a telegram (or short e-mail message!) using the letters of their name as the initial letters of the words e.g. TED = Treasure Every Day.

Place-names can also be used:

LONDON: Living On Nothing Drives One Nut.

ENGLAND: Every Nice Girl Loves A Non-alcoholic Drink.

TOKYO: Thinking Of Kissing Yoko Ono.

JAPAN: Jokes About Politicians Are Normal.

STOCKHOLM: Sexy Toyoto Owners Can Kiss Happily On London Motorways

SWEDEN: Sociable Women Eat Doughnuts Every Night

ANAGRAMS

As an alternative to a straight spelling test, the words can be given with jumbled letters:

DEHA

EEY

ETAL

AEDR

PLSEE

LMLAS

12

Find your partner (Stick self adhesive labels to Ss’ backs)

The teacher prepares SELF-ADHESIVE TYPEWRITER ADDRESS LABELS (which can be purchased in rolls to stick on the backs of all the students in the class.

Each label contains a real person’s name or the name of a character from fiction or television cartoons. Each named person should have a natural partner, for example if you write a label with the name ROMEO, there should also be a label with the name JULIET stuck on somebody’s back. If you have an odd number of students in your class, stick a label on your own back, but let the students do the questioning.

Questions must be of the type that can either be answered with YES or No:

Am I a man or a woman? Alive or dead? European or American? Real or fictitious?

Am I a character from a cartoon or a book? Am I rich? Am I famous?

Have I been in the news recently? Am I someone from your country? Britain?

Do I work in sport / music / entertainment / the cinema / the theatre?

ROMEO

JULIET

TOM the cat

JERRY the mouse

POPEYE

OLIVE OIL

Prince Philip

Queen Elizabeth II

Micky Mouse

Minnie Mouse

Stan Laurel

Oliver Hardy

King Juan Carlos

Queen Sofia

André Agassi

Steffi Graff

Nelson Mandella

Winnie Mandella

John Lennon

Yoko Ono

Richard Burton

Elizabeth Taylor

Bonnie (gangster)

Clyde (gangster)

Tarzan

Jane (jungle girl)

The Lone Ranger

Tonto (cowboy)

Prince Charles

Princess Diana

Cindarella

Prince Charming

13

What’s my nationality? Who am I?

Student (A) thinks of a nationality

Student (B) asks:

« Do you wear______________? »

« Do you drink / eat _________ ? »

« Do you play (sport) or (game)? »

« Do you play the (musical instrument)? »

« Does it rain / snow a lot there? »

« Is it very hot / very cold there? »

« Do the people like ______ there? »

« Are the people there tall / short / romantic / hard-working / rich / poor?

Student (A) thinks of a famous person, fictitious character or cartoon character?

Student (B) asks YES/NO questions as in 12. Find Your Partner.

14

What’s my job? (from open lists) Guessing games (closed lists)

Questions for those guessing

Do you work indoors or outdoors? / in a trade or profession? / in a factory or an office?

Do you work with your hands? Do you wear a uniform? Do you work long hours?

Do you work from 9-5? Do you work regular hours? Do you work at weekends?

Do you work with people or machines? Are you in a service industry?

Do you sell something? Do you earn a lot of money? Must you have good qualifications to do your job?

Jobs

GROUP 1

1. police officer

2. nurse

3. Farmer

4. Shopkeeper

5. scientist

6. artist

7. princess

8. dressmaker

9. civil engineer

10. bricklayer

11. caretaker

12. accountant

GROUP 2

1. singer

2. cook

3. secretary

4. student

5. driver

6. engineer

7. president

8. painter

9. chiropodist

10. fishmonger

11. receptionist

12. mathematician

GROUP 3

1. actor

2. teacher

3. manager

4. soldier

5. gardener

6. musician

7. writer

8. chemist

9. social worker

10. surgeon

11. bee-keeper

12. newsagent

GROUP 4

1. doctor

2. housewife

3. baker

4. pilot

5. factory worker

6. cowboy

7. builder

8. dentist

9. solicitor

10. secret agent

11. dustman

12. air-hostess

 

Miming lists of jobs: A & B teams

Student A chooses ONE of the jobs in Groups 1 and 2 above.

Student B chooses ONE of the jops in Groups 3 and 4 above.

The students have to mime their jobs so their partners can guess what they are.

15

The Airline HELP desk – miming

Write a role card for each student in the class giving them a problem which could occur in an airport. Each student has to mime their problem. The class tries to guess the problem by asking questions, but the student with the problem is not permitted to speak. They can only signal YES or NO.

This is a good game for teaching vocabulary in a memorable context. The stranger the problem, the more probable it is that the words will become part of the class’s active vocabulary.

Example of a problem:

My wife’s Game gone through passport control with my boarding card. She is wearing a long red coat and is carrying a rolling pin. Can you find her?

pigeon has flown into the Food Hall and is eating the fruit cake.

The game is especially good for supplying the right formulae in difficult situations where languages may be a problem:

The Airline HELP desk can be moved to another environment e.g. a language school, a hospital or a hotel (See CUP Maley & Duff’s hotel receptionist).

16

The Yes/No Game (from Michael Miles: « Take Your Pick »)

Different students volunteer to be asked questions. They must avoid saying the words « YES » or « NO » for a given period of time e.g. 1-2 minutes.

This is done by using expressions like: « I do », « I am », « that’s true », « that isn’t true »,

« that’s not correct », « exactly », « precisely », « that’s right », « that’s correct », « I think so »,

« probably », « possibly », « usually ».

The questioners can try to trap them through deliberate misunderstanding and

echo questions: « Did you say usually? So you said you live in Stuttgart? Perhaps?

Questions

Do you come from Australia? Are you sure you don’t?

Are you single or married? So you’re divorced. You’re not interested in marriage?

Do you like English food? So you LOVE English food. You think it’s the best in the world?

Have you been to Florence? So you haven’t been to Italy?

Which is more important – health or money? You said « health »?

How many brothers and sisters do you have? Fifteen?

Would you like a million pounds? So you’re not interested in money?

Are you more intelligent than your parents? So you’re less intelligent?

Did you say you were stupid?

Do you like your teacher? Is he / she the best teacher you’ve ever had?

The best in the world?

What are your hobbies? So you like listening to folk music?

Can you use a computer / play the piano? You can?

Game 16 The Yes/No Game (from Michael Miles: « Take Your Pick »)

The Yes/No Game is prominent for the English language learners since it will make them think well and answer the questions.

 

17

Word in edgeways (Conversation game)

Students work in pairs. Each partner is given a strip of paper with an unusual sentence written on it. They keep this concealed. If possible they try to learn the sentence off by heart. Then they start conversing about any subject, but their real object is to get their given sentence into the conversation without their partner realising and before their partner is able to do the same. To do this successfully they have to move the topic of conversation towards a context in which their sentence could naturally occur.

 

Sample sentences for strips:

  1. 1. The farmer was carrying a yellow guitar.
  2. 2. Elvis Presley was waiting on Brighton Station.
  3. 3. The bottles were full of green milk.
  4. 4. She kissed him on the nose and went to bed.
  5. 5. The French student wrote twenty love letters.
  6. 6. The policeman was dressed in pink shoes and a bow-tie.
  7. 7. The plane landed on the roof of Buckingham Palace.
  8. 8. The beauty queen made me a cup of tea.
  9. 9. The fly took off again and landed on my pillow.

10. The dog slipped on the banana skin and broke its leg.

11. The water was so deep that the child had to call for help.

12. The king was glad that nobody wanted his autograph.

To win the game, you have to continue speaking for a while after getting your sentence into the conversation without being correctly challenged. You can also win by correctly challenging your partner as soon as you think they are reciting their sentence. If your challenge is wrong, you lose the game. It is therefore good strategy to set traps for your partner by including strange sentences in the conversation which differ from your given sentence.

 


ANALYSE DES APPORTS AU DEVELOPPEMENT PAR LES INTERPRETES ET TRADUCTEUR EN AFRIQUE : CAS DU NIGERIA

Dr Théophile G. KODJO SONOU

Département d’anglais,

Institut Universitaire Panafricain (IUP),

01 BP 3950, Porto-Novo, République du Bénin,

presidentsonou@yahoo.com

 

Résumé

Dans le monde entier, le multilinguisme et la gestion qu’on en fait a renforcé et rende presque indispensable les apports au dévéloppement des interprétes et traducteurs de langues. Ainsi, les écoles d’interprétes et de traducteurs sont créees pour former et renforcer les compétences des traducteurs et interprétes qui sont au service du dévéloppement à travers la coopération internationale et le commerce transfrontalier. En Afrique, il y a eu peu d’effort dans le renforcement des capacités traductologiques et interprétatives. Le Nigéria malgré les efforts concentis est toujours confronter à quelques difficultés pour la formation des traducteurs et interprétes. D’énorme dévise s’utilise pour louer le service des traducteurs et interprétes internationaux. Notre objectif  a consisté à analyser les apports au dévéloppement des interprétes et traducteurs au Nigéria en Afrique de l’Ouest. La méthode documentaire est utilisée pour faire cette étude. Les résultats issus de cette recherche ont montré que dans le monde contemporain qui est le notre, les traducteurs et les interprétes apportent beaucoup au dévéloppement de leur pays, et c’est le cas au Nigéria. Toutesfois, beaucoup d’efforts reste à faire pour la création des écoles de pointe en vu de la formation des traducteurs et interprétes professionnels spécialisés.

Mots clés : Analyse, Apports, Dévéloppement, Traducteurs, Interprétes, Nigéria.

 

Abstract

In the whole world, multilingualism and the management that is been done with it, has reinfored and made almost indispensable the contributors to development by translators and interpreters. Thesefore, translations and interpretations schools are created to train and to reinforce the competencies of the translators and intrepretaters that are the service of development throught international cooperation and transborder trading. In Africa, little effort has been made for the reinforcement of translatologic and interpretative capacities. Despite, the effort made en Nigeria, the country is still facing some difficulties for the training of the translators and interpreters. Huge amount of money is been spent to here the services of international translators and interpreters. My objective has consistes of analyzing the contributors to development of interpreters and translators in Nigeria in West Africa. Documentary method has been used to cany out this study. The results obtained from this research has shown that in the contemporary world that ouss, translators and interpreters contribute enormously to the development of their country, and it is the case in Nigeria. Nevertheless, many efforts are to be made for the creation of qualitative school for the training of specialized professional translators and interpreters.

 

Key words: Analysis, Contribution, Development, Translators, Interpreters, Nigeria.

 

 

 

Introduction

Les multiples rencontres entre les opérateurs économiques, politiques, le monde des sciences et des affaires, les médias, la société-civile et entre citoyens s’accompagne d’un besoin de communications multilingue ; ce qui nécessitent l’aides incontestables des interprètes. Quand nous tournons aussi notre regard sur le plan religieux, on remarque dans nos églises ici au Nigéria, qu’il y a sans doute des interprètes pour faciliter la compréhension du message du Pasteur à ses fidèles. Nous remarquons aussi que toutes les nations du monde multiplient les conférences afin de s’entraider politiquement, d’échanger économiquement et socialement ; d’où le développement de ces nations-là. Ce développement n’est indirectement rendu possible que grâce au travail précieux et indispensable des traducteurs et des interprètes.

Par ailleurs, ils facilitent les échanges entre les participants ne parlant pas la même langue et cela permet à la fin d’aboutir au processus décisionnel de la communauté. Le Nigeria ne fait pas exception à cette règle vu sa position géographique avec les pays francophones qui l’entourent, c’est-à-dire le Cameroun, le Niger et le Tchad, sans oublier aussi son ambition de se développer sur le plan économique.

La position du Nigeria aujourd’hui dans la sous-région Ouest africaine nécessite une collaboration avec les autres pays qui l’entourent. Il souhaite voir son économie, sa culture, et aussi autres domaines émergés. C’est ce qui l’amène à multiplier les rencontres avec les partenaires étrangers au développement.

Donc, pour une meilleure compréhension, une meilleure rentabilité de ces différentes rencontres, il a besoin du rôle des interprètes afin de faciliter la communication et les échanges. Si tel est le cas, comment ces interprètes et traducteurs contribuent-ils au développement économique, politique, touristique, culturel et social du Nigéria ?

 

  1. 1. Justification de l’étude

L’importance de l’interprétation et de la traduction ne sont plus aujourd’hui une question de démonstration ; étant donné qu’elles jouent un rôle de premier plan dans la médiation lors des conférences qui réunissent des participants ne parlant pas la même langue. Vu l’interdépendance croissante au plan mondial, la globalisation, la prise de conscience des richesses culturelles existants ailleurs, sont autant d’évènements internationaux quotidiens qui mobilisent les interprétes et traducteurs pour de meilleurs échanges, meilleures écoutes et une meilleure compréhension des communications interlinguistiques.

Les traducteurs et les interprètes amènent des cultures languagières différentes à se communiquer correctement. L’intreprètation et la traduction apportent ennormement à la coopération internationale au Nigéria à travers la Communauté Economique Des Etats de l’Afique de l’Ouest (CEDEAO), l’Union Africaine (UA), l’Organisation des Nations Unis (ONU) et les Missions Diplomatiques de ce pays à travers le monde. La commercialisation du pétrole dont le Nigéria est le 4ème exportateur mondial, le place en 1ère position dans l’utilisation des services des traducteurs et interprétes. Ce qui justifie leurs apports au dévéloppement de ce pays. Nous nous sommes donnés pour mission dans cette étude de rendre compte de ces apports à travers une analyse scientifique.

 

  1. 2. Problématique de la recherche

Les métiers de traducteurs et d’interprétes sont des métiers nobles qui requièrent une profonde et parfaite connaissance en langues. Et, parlant de langue, il faut en maîtriser au moins deux pour être un bon traducteur ou un bon interpréte. Or, dans les pays africains les écoles de formations se fait rare et le personnel enseignants expérimentés et qualifiés pour le faire aussi. Malgré l’importance de ces métiers pour le dévéloppement national peu d’effort est faote pour former les professionnels devant prendre le devan des enjeux traductologiques et interprétatifs des langues afin que la coopération nationale, sous régionale, continentale voire internationale soit d’une part renforcée et bien gérer et que d’autre par le commerce transnational puisse être relancé. Ainsi, le dévéloppement national prendra son envole.

L’article traite fontiesement  des problèmes de formation des traducteurs professionnels. Leurs insertions professionnelles et leurs efforts dans le processus du dévéloppement des pays africains où le Nigéria a servir de cadre pour faire l’analyse des apports au dévéloppement par les interprétes et traducteurs en Afrique.

 

  1. 3. Objectifs de la recherche

Notre recherche fait l’analyse des apports au dévéloppement des interprétes et traducteurs dans les pays africains dont a servir de cadre à notre étude. Dans ce pays anglophones entourés de pays francophones, dont le Bénin, le Nigéria, le Tchad et le Caméroun, le dévéloppement socio-culturel, économique et diplomatique passe nécessairement par le rencorcement des compétences en traductions et interprétations de langues. Nous avons demontrer à travers des analyses pertinentes l’apport au dévéloppement des traducteurs et interprétes.

 

  1. 4. Méthodologie de la recherche

Pour aboutir à cette recherche, nous avons utilisés la méthode documentaire. Les divers documents consultés nous ont permis de faire la collecte des données que nous avons analysées. Ces analyses nous ont permis d’apprécier les apports, c’est-à-dire les contributions des interprétes et traducteurs dans développement des nations africaines. La République fédérale du Nigéria nous a servir de cadre d’étude où nous avons pu vérifier et analyser le potentielle des traducteurs et interprétes former des les Universités nigériane et ceux dont les services sont loués pour accompagner le développement socioculturelle, politique, économique, touristique, etc.  Nous avons émis des hypothèses que nous avons vérifiées à travers les données collectées.

4.1. Hypothèses

Nous avons émis deux hypothèses pour vérifier, c’est-à-dire confirmé ou infirmé les résultats de nos analyses.

Hypothèse 1

Les interprétes et traducteurs Nigérian formé au Nigéria contribuent au développement des nations africaine dont le Nigéria.

Hypothèse 2

Les interprétes et traducteurs étrangers formé à l’étranger contribuent au développement des nations africaine dont le  Nigéria.

 

4.2. Données statistiques

Nous présentons ici les données statistiques de quatre  activités d’interprétation et de traduction à travers les institutions, les lieux, les dates, le nombre d’interpréte et de traducteur participant ainsi que leur nationalité et les durées des activités. Ces données sont collectées à travers nos documentations et interviews. Les données collectées sont présentés dans le tableau ci-dessous :

Institutions

Lieux/Pays

Dates/

Périodes

Nbre d’interpréte et de traducteur, nationalité et langue de travail

Durée/

activités

 

1

 

Nigeria War College (NWC)

 

Abuja, Nigéria

 

Février 2005

 

4 interprétes

2 traducteurs dont :

– 1 traducteur Béninois (anglais vers français)

– 2 traducteurs Nigérians (français vers anglais)

– 1 interprétes Nigérian (français vers anglais)

– 2 interprétes Togolais (anglais vers français)

 

3 jours de formation des cadres supérieurs policés et militaire de l’Afrique de l’Ouest et du Centre

 

2

 

Association Ouest Africaine des Promoteurs d’Universités Privés

 

Lagos, Nigéria

 

Janvier 2016

 

1 traducteur et 1  interpréte

dont :

– 1 traducteur  Béninois (anglais vers français)

– 1 traducteur  Nigérian (français vers anglais)

 

 

3 jours de céminaire sur la coopération inter universitaire

 

3

 

Association des Directeurs des Ecoles Normales de l’Afrique de l’Ouest

 

Lagos, Nigéria

 

Décembre 2016

 

1 traducteur Nigérian (français vers anglais)

 

 

2 jours de céminaire sur la coopération inter école

 

 

4

 

National Association of Proprietors of Private Schools (NAPPS)

 

Ekiti, Nigéria

 

Avril 2018

 

1 traducteur Nigérian (français vers anglais)

 

 

4 jours de  conférence annuelle des promoteurs d’école privée au Nigéria

Tableau 1 : Présentation des données statistiques

4.3. Analyse des données et présentation

des résultats

L’analyse des données est faite dans le tableau ci-dessous.

 

Traducteurs et Interprétes

Nbre

Nationalités

Pourcentages

Nig.

Bén

Tog

Nig.

Bén

Tog

1

Traducteurs

07

05

02

00

71,42%

28,57%

00%

2

Interprétes

03

01

00

02

33,33%

00%

66,66%

Tableau 2 : Analyse des données

L’interprétation du tableau 2 montre que le Nigéria en matière d’interprétation et de traduction est en avance sur les autres pays soit 6 traducteurs et interprétes sur 10 utilisés dans 4 activités de traductions et d’interprétations qui ont eu lieu au Nigéria. Ces 4 activités ont reunis des traducteurs et interprétes de 4 nationalités et le Nigéria seul a fournir 71,42% de traducteurs et 33,33% d’interprétess

 

4.4. Interprétation des résultats

Les résultats issus des analyses montrent qu’il a dans les 4 activités plus de traducteurs qu’interprétes. Cela peut s’expliquer par manque de formation des interprétes par rapport aux traducteurs qui sont formés dans certaines facultés au Nigéria qui aura l’Afrique de Sud regorge de plus de traducteurs. L’absence d’interprétes et le fait de l’absence d’école de formation. Ces conférences importantes n’auraient pu être effectives s’il n’y a des traducteurs et interprétes.

  1. 5. Revue de Littérature

Dans son ouvrage intitulé ‟Initiation à la traduction”, publié en 2017, Kodjo Sonou fait le point de l’importance de la traduction et de sa contribution dans le dévéloppement culturel, politique, diplomatique, commercial etc. Le livre présente la définition de la traduction, renseigne sur son origine et situe son importance par rapport à son usage.

Gbadejerin (2014 : 115-135) ; Dans son article intitulé ‟ La composition rythmique yoruba et le défi de la traduction dans la version française des romans de Fagunwa” et publie dans ‟International, Journal of Teaching and Learning (INJOTEL), fait le point de la traduction littéraire des romans de Fagunwa de yoruba en français. Il soutient que ‟ L’emploi du rythme dans la littérature orale est à la fois un phénomène culturel et linguistique. Son article fait l’analyse de la composition rythmique des messages de la littérature orale de n’importe quelle nation dans la traduction littéraire.

Pour sa part, Babatunde (2012 : 105-222) ; présente dans son article intitulé ‟Le Bilinguisme nigérian : Un phénomène sociolinguistique” la possibilité que le Nigéria à cause de pays francophone qui l’entoure, devienne un pays bilingue : français-anglais. Faisant le lien entre la langue et l’éducation, Babatunde (2012 : 105) soutient que ‟l’Education est un instrument” par excellence ‟pouvant produit un impact sur le dévéloppement national ; et la langue est un puissant outil qui facilite l’éducation”. Dans son article ‟Reflexion sur la traduction des théâtres de wole Soyinka” publié dans ‟International, Journal of Teaching and Learning (INJOTEL)” ;

Agbogun Mathiew a présenté des définitions de la traduction. Au prime abord il soutient que ‟Etymologiquement, le mot «traduction» est dérivé du nom latin «translatio-onis» qui signifie l’acte de transfére, ou plus analytiquement, du vert latin «transfero» qui en français, veut dire transférer, traduire. Aussi, Agbogun (2012 : 68), citant caford (1980) ; associe le terme «translation shift» à la notion d’équivalence qui fait l’objet de diverses perceptions et définitions.

Parlant de la traduction periodique Sitou (2010 :165) ; soutient que la traduction est dite juridique lorsqu’elle s’intéresse au domaine du droit, qui est si vaste qu’il contient de sous domaines.

Enfin, Alo, Dipe Paulin (2010). A publié un article intitulé ‟La Linguistique ou le pouvoir de traduire et d’interpréter”, dans lequel il fait le lien entre la linguistique, la traduction et l’interprétation.

 

  1. 6. Clarification conceptuelle

Avant tout propos, la définition des termes, rôle,   développement, traduction et interprétation est faite.

 

6.1. Rôle

Selon le dictionnaire ‘’le petit Larousse (Larousse bordas 1997 ; 898), le rôle est l’ensemble du texte, des actions correspondants à un personnage donné, dans une pièce de théâtre, un film etc… Le rôle est un emploi, une fonction une influence, exercées par quelqu’un ; par exemple le rôle du Maire dans la Commune. Le rôle est une fonction d’un élément dans un ensemble. L’exemple du rôle du verbe dans une phrase. Sur le plan psychologique, le rôle est l’ensemble des éléments et comportements associés à une place, à un statut social.

 

6.2. Dévéloppement

Selon le même dictionnaire (Page 329), le développement est une action de développer, de déployer quelque chose. C’est un ensemble des différents stades par lesquels passé un organisme, un être vivant pour atteindre sa maturité. Sur le plan économique, grâce aux interprètes, il y a une amélioration qualitative et durable d’une économie et plus de son fonctionnement. Donc avoir un développement, c’est développer c’est-à-dire étendre ce qui est déjà, c’est transformer au moyen de procédés, assurer la croissance de ses revenus, c’est aussi donner toute son extension à une réalisation donnée, c’est encore augmenter la puissance économique, sociopolitique.

 

6.3. Traduction

Plusieurs experts de la linguistique et spécialiste de la traduction et des langues vivantes ont trouvé des expressions convergentes pour donner diverses définitions à la traduction. Ainsi, Kodjo Sonou (2009 : 4) soutient que,   « la traduction, c’est l’acte de reproduire un message écrit dans une langue tout en gardant le sens premier du message». Larousse (2007 : 428) renseigne que «La raduction, c’est l’action de traduire ou de transporter un message dans une autre langue un message textuel rédigé dans une langue donnée sans changer, ni modifier le sens du message ».

 

 

6.4. Interprétation

Les compétences écrites sont nécessaires pour le traducteur alors que les compétences auditives sont nécessaires pour l’Interpréte.

Le traducteur doit pouvoire lire avant de traduire. Le travail de l’interpréation est plus exigeant, car interpréter c’est rendre instantanément le message de l’autre et oralement. Le travail du traducteur est moins exigeant. Car il prend tout son temps pour réfléchir et consulter les dictionnaires. Il a aussi une plus grande liberté de choix, alors que le manque de temps ne permet pas à l’interpréte de faire le choix.

L’interprétation a à faire à l’orale et la traduction à l’écrit. On traduit un document écrit, mais on interpréte un message orale.

Alors par rapport à notre sujet, voyons dans un premier temps la contribution de l’interprète au développement économique.

 

  1. 7. Contribution de l’interprétation et de la traduction dans le développement de l’économie nigériane

Comme mentionné plus haut l’interprétation facilite les échanges entre les acteurs économiques. On peut donc dire qu’elle a aussi contribué au développement du Nigeria. Pour illustration cela, nous pouvons citer entre autre la dernière réunion à Abuja des chefs d’Etats Africains dans le cadre de la Coopération Union Européenne Afrique pour un développement le 13 Décembre 2012. Lors de cette réunion, il y a plusieurs participants parlant plusieurs langues (Arabe-Français-Anglais…) donc, le problème de communication, d’échanges et de compréhension s’imposent. L’aide inévitable des interprètes et traducteurs se fait sentir, la preuve est que l’allocution de l’envoyé du premier ministre britannique, Henry Bellingham faite en Anglais a été interprétée en français et en arabe afin que tous les participants soient senti lésé car ils pouvaient se comprendre quand bien même ils ne parlaient pas la même langue et de plus tout le monde avait au même moment accès aux documents et aux informations. Tout ceci grâce à la promptitude et à la rapidité des interprètes et même des traducteurs sollicités pour cette occasion.

Par ailleurs, de nombreux régionaux et internationaux se sont tenus sur le sol nigérian à savoir le forum nigérian, le forum lybano-nigérian et beaucoup d’autres, mais nous allons seulement nous limiter au forum économique bénino-nigerian

Le premier sommet économique bénino-nigérian s’était tenue le 12 février 2007 et a eu pour objectif d’encourager les opérateurs économiques à investir tant au Nigéria qu’au Bénin et à leur montrer les différentes opportunités que chacun des deux pays leur offre. Donc grâce aux travaux des interprètes les échanges entre les deux nations ont été faciles. Ceci va plus loin le 26 juillet au 5 août 2009 une foire commercial bénino-nigériane qui a été organisée à Cotonou. Il y avait beaucoup d’opérateurs nigérians qui ont participés à ce premier forum économique bénino-nigériane du 12 février 2007. Le sinterprètes ont fait un grand travail pour faciliter la communication et les échanges des interventions de ceux Béninois pour qu’il y ait plus de participants Nigérians et Nigérianes lors de cette foire.

Toujours sur le plan économique, d’accord entre l’ancien président Obasanjo Olusegun et le président béninois le docteur Boni Yayi, sur les produits tels que le savon, l’huile, les jus de fruits et les tissus qui sont clandestinement transportés du Bénin vers le Nigéria. Pour qu’il y ait compréhension des deux parties, il a fallu l’intervention de sinterprètes.

 

  1. 8. Contribution de l’Interprétation et de la traduction au service de la résolution des crises

Voyons toujours ce rôle des interprètes dans le développement du Nigéria à travers le dénouement de la crise qui s’était survenue en 2003, lorsque le Nigéria avait fermé pendant quelques jours ses frontières terrestres avec le Bénin. Pendant cette période, les opérateurs économiques nigérians avaient du manque à gagner parce qu’il a été mis en place un système rigoureux de contrôle des échanges commerciaux. Cette coopération a pu reprendre grâce aux efforts déployés par les interprètes et traducteurs pour faciliter la communication lors des rencontres de dénouements de la crise. Selon l’économiste OLANIYI AKANGUN, vu la proximité du Bénin au Nigéria il représente une terre d’opportunité d’intervention des opérateurs économiques nigérians pour la déverse de leurs produits. Donc cela fait une grande fortune au Nigéria ; et cette compréhension est effective grâce aux travaux des interprètes et des traducteurs.

Entre autres, les compagnies pétrolières françaises en occurrence total qui se sont installées au Nigéria après avoir remporté l’appel d’offre international lancé par l’Etat Nigérian après pour l’attribution d’une licence d’exploitation de pétrole nigérian. Ces compagnies versant chaque année une somme énorme dans la caisse nigériane. Si ces accords et contrats ont abouti, c’est grâce au rôle décisif des interprètes et traducteurs.

Aussi, depuis lors, les petites entreprises se multiplient au Nigéria ; or promouvoir l’entreprise, c’est promouvoir le développement. Dans ce cadre plusieurs forums se sont tenus sur le sol nigérian à savoir ceux bénino-nigérian, chino-nigérian et libano-nigérian.

Grâce aux rôles qu’ont joué les interprètes lors d’une réunion du comité technique qui a rassemblé plusieurs pays de l’Afrique à savoir le Cameroun, le Congo, la Guinée, le Nigéria, le Sénégal, le Togo, la Serra-Leone, le Niger, le Bénin sur le thème « Etudes techniques, infrastructures et développement à Lagos », la République Fédérale du Nigéria des 25 au 29 Septembre 2012, le Nigeria a pu s’offrir des projets de construction de quelques voies à l’intérieur d’Etat de Lagos. Cette réunion concerne les différentes opportunités et comment il faut redynamiser les activités portuaires de chaque pays membre de l’association générale des ports de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Donc lors de cette rencontre, il y a plusieurs exposés et intervention en français en anglais. Pour qu’il y ait un bon échange et une compréhension, les interprètes ont joué un rôle de premier plan.

Somme toute, tous ces échanges rencontres économiques et commerciaux entre le Nigéria et les autres nations n’auraient été possible si les interprètes n’étaient pas présents. Aussi pouvons-nous dire, sans exagérer que les interprètes ont beaucoup contribué au développement du Nigeria.

Nous verrons à la suite la contribution des interprètes pour faciliter le dialogue entre les politiciens nationaux comme internationaux.

 

  1. 9. Contribution de l’interprète et du traducteur au renforcement socio-politique

L’interprétation ou la traduction ont contribué et continuent toujours de contribuer au développement social au Nigeria. Il y a plus d’intervention dans le domaine de l’éducation et de la santé. La coopération chino-nigériane dans le domaine de la construction de routes et autres infrastructures fonctionne à merveille à Lagos et aussi dans les localités du pays.

Dans cette perspective, intervient la Banque d’Investissement de Développement de la CEDEAO (BIDC) qui est au cœur du développement de l’Afrique de l’Ouest. Elle finance des projets de développement rural et environnemental comme l’irrigation, le contrôle des crues, l’hydraulique rurale, l’agriculture, l’élevage, pêche protection de l’écosystème, l’énergie renouvelable, et le renforcement des capacités. D’autre part, la BIDC soutient le secteur social, la formation professionnelle, l’éducation, la santé. Elle appui aussi à la décentralisation et l’équipement des municipalités dans les coins reculés qui sont analphabètes. Pour réussir cette noble mission sociale il a fallu l’appel et l’aide des interprètes pour faciliter la communication. Nous n’allons pas aussi oublier l’aide des organisations non-gouvernementales (ONG) françaises, allemande qui interviennent dans les domaines de la santé pour la lutte contre le paludisme, le VIH/SIDA, la polio, et la construction des centres sociaux. Pour que la communication de ces ONG puisse passer avec les populations nigérianes, il a fallu des interprètes qui les aident dans la communication orale et les traducteurs pour la traduction des documents soit en arabe, en anglais et en français ; ceci toujours pour faciliter la communication.

Dans le cas de la politique, les interprètes et traducteurs ont beaucoup contribué énormément au développement du Nigéria. Nous pouvons citer la conférence de chefs d’Etats africaines qui s’était tenue à Abuja les 11 et 12 mars 2013 sur thème le Renforcement de la capacité des forces Ouest africaines lors des périodes de crise ou les interprètes et traducteurs ont été sollicités afin de faciliter la communication des participations. Aussi tout récemment une réunion panafricaine sur le Nouveau défis parlementaire pour la lutte contre la corruption (notre traduction) s’est tenue à Abuja, la politique nigériane a été exposée depuis qu’il a adoptée la voie de la démocratie en mai 1999 après 20 ans de régime militaire. Notons que cela a donné confiance aux dirigeants nigérians de renforcer les moyens de lutte contre ce fléau qui ruine l’économie nigériane. Ceci a permis sans doute de redonner confiance aux investisseurs étrangers de venir investir sans aucune crainte. Cette compréhension n’a été facile que grâce au rôle qu’à jouer les interprètes et traducteurs.

Nous pouvons aussi mentionner les multiples visites en 2006 et 2008 du Président Béninois le DOCTEUR YAYI BONI au Nigeria lors de régime du Président Umaru Yar’Adua. Ces contacts et échanges diplomatiques sur différents domaines économiques, politiques ont été fructueux grâce au travail inlassable des interprètes et des traducteurs.

Le plus récent qui a place le Nigeria sur orbite est les multiples réunions de la CEDEAO sur le sol nigerian et le rôle imminent qu’à jouer le Président Nigérian Goodluck Jonathan E. pour la résolution de la crise ivoirienne et celle du Mali. Tout ceci a montré que le Nigeria œuvre pour la transparence électorale et la paix dans la sous région Ouest Africaine.

Nous n’oublions pas aussi la réunion des femmes parlementaires à Abuja en novembre 2010. Signalons par ailleurs que le Nigeria est membre des organismes tels que la CEDEAO, L’UEMOA qui réunissent les chefs d’état des nations membres. Ces rencontres entre chefs d’états africains leur permettent d’échanger, de mettre en place des politiques et s’entraider politiquement, économiquement et socialement. Or ces échanges lors des conférences ne se font pas sans la présence des interprètes et des traducteurs, car les pays membres n’ont pas seulement l’anglais en partage.

En dehors des relations au niveau fédéral, les états locaux ne sont pas aussi restés en marge, c’est le cas des accords entre la Mairie de Cotonou en république du Bénin et l’Etat de Lagos. Ainsi le Gouverneur de Lagos babatunde Raji Fashola en Décembre 2006 a accueilli son homologue Dieu-Donné SOGLO, le Maire de Cotonou. Toutes les échanges ne sont pas faits sans les interprètes puisque le Gouverneur Babatunde Raji Fashola ne comprend pas le français et même aussi de Cotonou en République du Bénin a besoin de quelqu’un en anglais afin que les deux parties puissent se comprendre dans leur discussion ; donc les interprètes jouent un rôle très importants dans le développement du Nigeria car ils facilitent les dialogues, les échanges et les prises de décisions entre l’Etat nigerian qui est anglophone et des autres pays francophones, Germanie que hispanophones.

 

  1. 10. Apport de l’interprète et du traducteur sur le plan touristique

Le tourisme au Nigeria a connu un essor ses dernières années grâce aux travaux des interprètes et des traducteurs. Le Nigeria avec ses multiples cultures, monuments et sites touristiques Yoruba et d’autres dans les régions Igbo drainent et continuent de drainer les touristes à visiter le Nigeria. Tout cela fait de la fortune dans la caisse du pays. Les traducteurs sont très sollicités pour la traduction des dépliants, des brochures, des prospectus des hôtels, les imprimés touristiques, aussi les accompagnateurs touristiques ne sont pas autres que les interprètes.

Pour satisfaire leurs clients étrangers, les grands hôtels comme EKO HOTEL  à Lagos, Sheraton à Abuja, Airport Hôtel Ikeja à Lagos, Federal Palace Hôtel à Ikoï, Welcome Centre & Hotels à Lagos embauchent des personnes bilingues et font appel à des traducteurs, pour traduire leurs brochures, menus, pancartes banderoles en des langues Arabes, Française, Espagnol et le Portugais. Par ailleurs, ces hôtels de marque font appel aussi aux interprètes de liaison pour faire visiter les Etats où sont ces hôtels là. Les statistiques ont montré que de 2008 à 2009 il y e environ 150 mille touristes pour une recette nationale de 16 milliards de Naïra. Surtout à Ibadan, il y a plus d’affluence des touristes allemands, français même américains qui pour comprendre les cultures d’odudua ont besoin de communiquer avec quelqu’un ou accompagnateur ; mais ces accompagnateurs ne sont que des traducteurs et interprètes. Mais dites-vous qu’à la fin, ces touristes sont tous satisfaits grâce aux rôles que jouent les interprètes de liaison et le rôle des traducteurs pour la traduction des brochures en des langues internationales.

 

  1. 11. Observations et suggestions

Parlant d’observations et par rapport à l’interprétation des résultats, nous avons remarqué ce qui suit :

–          Dans quatre activités ayant regroupé 10 traducteurs et interprétes, le Nigéria seul a forni 6/10

–          Sur les 6/10 traducteurs et interprétes forni pas le Nigéria, il y a 5 traducteurs et interprétes.

–          Malgré la capacité économique du Nigéria, il a toujours besoin d’une main d’œuvre extérieure Béninois et Togolais pour mieux conduire ces activités.

Pour les suggestions, nous présentons ce qui suit :

–         Il faut que l’Etat en plus des ces efforts qui sont par exemple la création de ‟Foreign Affairs Academy” Ecole Spécialisée du Ministère des affaires étrangères qui forme les futur diplomate à la maîtrise de leurs langues de travail, il est impérieux qu’une école spécialisée de Traduction et Interprétation soit créée pour former cette catégorie de personnel qui appuient les Ambassadeurs et les attachés de commerces dans la missions diplomatiques.

–         L’Etat pet encourager les privés à intervenir dans le domaine, car il est vital ^pour la diplomatie, le commerce International et la recherche scientifique.

–         Le prise en compte des étudiants de maîtrise ni de Licence pour deux ans de formations rigoureuse à la maîtrise des technique de traduction et d’interprétation est une bonne chose.

–         La sous region Ouest africaine peut créer une école Regionale des Traducteurs et Interprétes Professionnels (ERTIP).

–         Les embassades et missions diplomatiques ne doivent utiliser pour des raisons de sécurité que des traducteurs et interprétes nationaux bien formés et  accermentés. Et, ainsi, le développement du Nigéria et de l’Afrique toute entière sera au rendez-vous.

 

Conclusion

Eu égard à tout ce qui précède, on peut conclure que les interprètes comme les traducteurs contribuent énormément au développement économique, politique, social, commercial, éducatif, sécuritaire, alimentaire, diplomatique, infrastructurelle, architectural et touristique du Nigeria. Sans ces interprètes et traducteurs au côté du président et des opérateurs économiques nigérians, le pays n’aurait pas d’ouverture à l’étranger. Il y aurait donc beaucoup de problème communicationnel à tout les niveux de la vie et du développement. Les interprétes et les traducteurs facilitent  à tous les acteurs du développement nigérian, les échangers avec leurs homologues de la sous région et des autres pays du monde.

Nous pouvons dire sans risque de se tromper que les interprètes et traducteurs contribuent beaucoup aux différentes réalisations que connaît le Nigeria aujourd’hui, comme cétait le cas hier, et demain ne serait pas une exception. On peut dire sans le risque de se tromper que les interprètes et les traducteurs ont apporté beaucoup à l’émergeance du Nigeria dans les domaines économiques, politiques, socio-culturels et touristique. La traduction du scenario des films et leurs sous-titrages dans d’autres langues est une preuve palpable de l’apport des traducteurs au développement du Nigéria dans le domaine culturel. Le doublage des voix des films nigérianes dans d’autres langues est une preuve de la contribution des interprétes au développement culturel du Nigéria. Toutes ces avancées majeures ont contribuée à la naissance de Nollywood qui concurrence fortement Hollywood actuellement.

Mais, il est impérieux de renforcer la capacité et les compétences des interprétes et traducteurs à travers la création des centres universitaires pour la formation et le recyclage de ces catégories de metiers y compris les technicien qui les accompagnes ; exemple du technicien machiniste installateur du laboratoire de langues. Au Nigéria comme dans tous les pays africains, l’Etat doit  multiplier les centres de formations afin de former de plus en plus de traducteurs et d’interprètes qualifiés et aptes à accompagner le développement de ces pays. La création d’un centre régional de la sous-région Ouest Africain pour la formation des traducteurs et interprétariats serait une chose à examiner, élaborer et réaliser.

 

Bibliographie

AGBOGUN, Mathiew I. (2010). ‟Reflexion sur la traduction des théâtres de wole Soyinka” in Agora (Journal of Foreign Language Studies). Uyo. University of uyo. N° 04. P 65-80.

ALO, Dipe Paulin (2010). ‟La Linguistique ou le pouvoir de traduire et d’interpréter” in Eureka. Lagos. upper Standard press. P 147-163.

AUDET, Jean-Paul. (1970). « La longue aventure de l’interprétation et de la traduction» in Meta : journal des traducteurs, Ottawa. Meta. 15 :1, pp. 30-34.

BABATUNDE, Femi. (2012). ‟Le Bilinguisme nigérian : Un phénomène sociolinguistique réalisable” in International, Journal of Teaching and Learning (INJOTEL) ; Porto-Novo. Editions Sonou d’Afrique. P 205-222.

BASTIN, Georges et CORMIER, Monique. (2007). Profession traducteur, Montréal : Presses de l’Université de Montréal.

DELISLE, Jean. (1980). L’analyse du discours comme méthode de traduction : initiation à la traduction française de textes pragmatiques anglais : théorie et pratique, Ottawa : Editions de l’Université d’Ottawa.

DELISLE, Jean. (1999). Portraits de traducteurs, Ottawa : Presses de l’Université d’Ottawa.

FAGBOHUN, Joseph Akanbi. (2007). Théorie et Pratique de la Traduction, Notions élémentaires, Lagos, Moonlight Publishers, pp. 15-21 & 22.

GBADEJESIN, Olusegun Adegboye. (2014).  ‟ La composition rythmique yoruba et le défi de la traduction dans la version française des romans de Fagunwa” in international, Journal of Teaching and Learning (INJOTEL), vol1. N° 05; P 115-135. Porto-Novo. Editions Sonou d’Afrique.

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KODJO SONOU, Théophile, Gbègninou. (2009). Initiation à la linguistique et à la stylistique de la langue Française. Porto-Novo. Editions Sonou d’Afrique.

KODJO SONOU, Théophile, Gbègninou. (2016). «Impact de l’interprétation sur le dévéloppement d’une nation : cas du Bénin» in l’Educateur. Porto-Novo. Editions Africatex Média.

KODJO SONOU, Théophile, Gbègninou. (2017). Initiation à la traduction. Porto-Novo. Editions Africatex Média.

ROBERTS, Roda P. (1984). « Compétence du nouveau diplômé en traduction » in Traduction et Qualité de langue, Actes du colloque, Société des traducteurs du Québec/Conseil de la langue française, Québèc, Editeur officiel du Québec, pp. 172 – 184.

SELESKOVITCH, Danica et LEDERER, Marianne. (2001). « Apprendre à préparer un sujet technique» in Interpréter pour traduire, Paris : Didier. pp. 229-241.

SITOU, Moufoutaou. (2010). ‟La traduction juridique : une analyse contrastive du «Jugement civil sur requête» et du «declaration of âge»”, in Agora (Journal of Foreign Language Studies). Lagos. Eureka. upper Standard press. P 164-179.

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CONTENTIOUS ISSUES IN NIGERIA POLITY CHALLENGES TO DOCTRINE AND FAITH

Dr BALOGUN, O. O. E.

Department of Religious Studies,

College of Humanities (COHUM)

Tai Solarin University of Education, Ijagun,

P.m.b. 2118 Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria olaniranbalogun56@gmail.com

Abstract

Our country is currently passing through a phase that is marked by tension, agitation and a general sense of hopelessness and dissatisfaction. This we believe is as a result of years of injustice, inequity, corruption, and impunity. There are agitations in many sectors of the country against the one-sidedness in appointment to key institutions and sensitive national offices, against marginalization, unfair distribution of resources and amenities. There are also allegations of cases of selective application of the rule of law.

In his inaugural speech as civilian President of Nigeria on 29 May 2015, the President sent out a message of hope and of his commitment to national integration and cohesion. He said “Having just a few minutes ago sworn on the Holy Book, I intend to keep my oath and serve as President to all Nigerians. I belong to everybody and I belong to nobody. A few people have privately voiced fears that on coming back to office I shall go after them. These fears are groundless. There will be no paying off old score.”  More than two years later, the reality on ground and the verdict of most of our people across the nation – irrespective of religious affiliation, ethnic group or social status – point to the contrary. The inability of the Government to address the inequitable situation in the country has provided breeding ground for violent reactions protects and agitations, which exploit the grievances of different segments of the country. We call on Government at all levels to urgently address these anomalies, remove everything that smacks of injustice, and give everybody and everybody and every part of our country a sense of belonging. We insist that merit and ability should be the primary criteria in making appointments and genuine needs the criteria for the distribution of amenities. We also urge the Government to be always sensitive to the multi-religious and multi-ethnic configuration of the nation.

 

Introduction

As Catholic Bishops, affirm that the legitimacy of every Government derives from its ability to listen to the legitimate yearnings and genuine cries of the people and honestly seek to address them. We therefore urge the Government at all levels to engage the aggrieved sections of the citizenry in a conversation worthy of a democracy.  We are concerned that the deployment of soldiers in the midst of already restive youths could increase the nervousness among the populace with the potential of igniting a fire that could turn into an uncontrollable conflagration. On the other hand, we enjoin all aggrieved persons and groups to employ all aggrieved persons and groups to employ peaceful means within the framework of the existing laws of the land to existing laws of the land to express their grievances or even exercise legitimate pressure on the Government. Care must be taken by all avoid actions and utterances capable of causing yet another armed conflict in the nation or any of its parts.

We demand fair treatment from those State Government in the North that deny some of our Dioceses their rights to own landed properties for mission work by their refusal to issue them with Certificates of Occupancy. People of different religions need to co-exist, communicate, and be allowed to freely practice their respective religions everywhere in this country.

Furthermore, the other members of the political class in all the arms of government have, as a matter of urgency, to reduce drastically the immodest cost of running government in this country. If for no other reason, they have to do this as a sign of solidarity with most of their compatriots for whom the basic necessities of life – feeding, clothing shelter, healthcare, energy, quality education – have almost become unrealizable dreams.

 

Armed herdsmen and their threat to security

The continued havoc caused by armed herdsmen in various parts of our country, can no longer be treated as mere clash between pastoralists and farmers. For apart from wanton destruction of farmlands and crops, some of these armed herdsmen are known to have laid siege on entire villages, killing, maiming, kidnapping, and raping. Besides, there are also reports that some of them are foreigners who have entered the country without proper checks by the competent authorities. Such persons are therefore to be considered a great threat to our national and individual security and their activities treated as acts of terrorism. We demand that adequate and prompt action be taken and be clearly seen to have been taken to stop their onslaught.

 

Some light in the midst of darkness

Along with other groups in Nigeria, we acknowledge the modest success recorded in the ongoing fight against corruption, the substantial curtailing of the activities of Boko Haram, and the release of some of the Chibok Girls. We note the positive report about the economy gradually coming out of recession. Nevertheless, we expect the Government to put in place economic policies and strategies that will make positive import on the lives of our people, thereby reducing hardship and advancing the socio-economic welfare of citizens.

We commend the vast majority of Nigerians for standing together and remaining law-abiding citizens in the face of many difficulties, challenges and even provocation. We condole with the victims of terrorism, natural disasters, conflicts and violent crimes, while we continue to pray for the deceased. The solidarity shown by many Nigerians to those affected by the recent floods that affected some parts of the country is a sign of hope for our common peaceful co-existence. We equally commend the assistance rendered by individual Dioceses and other humanitarian agencies to the displaced and distressed persons. We appeal to the Government to carry the Church along in the work of the rehabilitation of such persons.

 

Nation-building: a collective responsibility

Since the founding of our country Nigeria, too much attention seems to have been focused on “sharing the national cake” rather than on “baking that cake” by first building a strong and stable nation. The task of nation-building is a responsibility that rest on all the citizens of the country. We therefore call on all Nigerians to put more effort into working for the common good according to the principles of subsidarity and solidity. Individuals as well as smaller groups ought to have enough space for development while all contribute to the commonweal?

Irrespective of nomenclature, we sincerely believe that most Nigerians earnestly desire a truly federal system of government that enhances the welfare of all citizens. This would not only address the allegations of marginalization, but also make the fight against corruption more successful. Nevertheless, no matter what system of government we adopt, without, a true conversion of heart by all and the readiness to make sacrifices for the common goods, especially by persons in public office we shall only be reshuffling our problems without solving them and shifting the epicenters of our national tragedies.

High quality education for all

As a Church, we reaffirm our commitment to the integral development of the citizens of Nigeria, especially through the provision of quality education. In this regard, we once more call on all State Governments to return to the old tradition by which Church and State collaborated in the provision of high quality education for all our citizens.

We also enjoin the Federal and State ministries and departments of education to ensure adequate and comprehensive curriculum for Christian Religious Studies (CRS), in such a way that individual rights to religious freedom and the right of the Church to teach and disseminate the Christian faith is not infringed upon. We totally condemn the so-called Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) and dubious Maternal Health techniques that are not only contrary to divine law but also would encourage immorality. All health related programmes ought to show respect for the dignity and sanctity of human life, every human life, from conception to natural death.

We note with great concern the ongoing strikes among various members of professional groups in our country. We appeal to the federal government to honour all legal agreements with these organizations so as to limit the grave damage that is already being done to our society.

 

Christian commitment to nation-building

In our journey towards national restoration, the role of Christians, the Clergy as well as the Laity, is fundamental. As priests, our commitment to Christ in our total and obedient self-giving to him through prayers and service of our brothers and sisters not only makes us grow in holiness but also contributes immensely to the restoration of our nation. While not permit to participate in partisan politics, urgent to those among people peace and harmony based on justice (cf. Canon 287). The lay faithful, on the other hand, are expected and encouraged to bear witness to the Gospel in their private, public and political lives. In the words of Pope Benedict XVI: “The Mission of the lay faithful is ….. to configure social life correctly, respecting its legitimate autonomy and cooperating with other citizens according to their respective competence and fulfilling their own responsibility” (Deus Carital Est 22). We therefore earnestly call on the Lay Faithful to intensify their efforts in bringing the light of the Good News to those places only they can reach. They are by their life of witness to bring Christ into the temporal order such as politics, business, and in their places of daily engagements (Christifideles Laici 42). By their vocation they are to challenge government policies that negate fundamental human rights and their individual and collective right as Christians.

 

The modern media as ally

We observe that modern media, especially social media, can be effective means of information, education and evangelization. We however, note that rather than tap their great potential benefits fro expanding knowledge, many, especially our youth, have become exposed to such negative dimensions of the social media as organs for crime, the dissemination of hate speeches, slander, for peddling outright falsehood and misinformation. In these difficult times, we appeal to our people to be more circumspect and positive in the use of information obtained from and disseminated through the modern media.

 

The Marian year-praying for peace in nigeria

The Catholic Church in Nigeria declared the year 2017 a Marian Year, in honour of the Centenanry of the apparitions of the Blessed Virgin Mary in Fatima, Portugal. We invite all Christ’s Faithful to participate actively in this national celebration and to its solemn conclusion scheduled to take place in Benin City from 12 to 14, October, 2017. During this celebration we shall re-consecrate Nigeria to the Immaculate Heart of Mary. In doing so, we entrust Nigeria to the Blessed Virgin Mary, Queen of Nigeria, asking her to intercede on our behalf to stabilize the Nigerian ship of state. May she also obtain for us all the blessings and graces that we need as a nation. May she pray for us to attain peace in our hearts, unity, and tranquility.

Gratitude to god for events in the church

We are grateful to God for the appointments, ordinations and installations of new Catholic Bishops in Nigeria: Most Rev Donatus AKPAN, ordained and installed Bishop of Ogoja Diocese on 7 July 2017; and Most Rev Hilary DACHELEM, ordained and installed Bishop of Bauchi Diocese on 17 August 2017. We heartily congratulate them and warmly welcome them into the CBCN. We are grateful to His Holiness Pope Francis for the appointment of a new Apostolic Nubcio to Nigeria, Archbishop Antonio Guido FILIPAZZI. We welcome him to Nigeria and pray that his tenure be  blessed with a resounding pastoral and spiritual growth for our Church and the nation.

We thank the Holy Father Pope Francis for intervening directly to definitively resolve the crisis in Ahiara Diocese, which has lingered for nearly five years. We urge all the priests and the lay faithful of Ahiara Diocese to unconditionally embrace the paternal gesture of the Holy Father.

Conclusion: our hope does not disappoint us

The Catholic Bishops of Nigeria make a passionate appeal to all our Christians and the rest of Nigerians not to lose hope. We may be traumatized but we shall not be broken (cf. 2Cor.4:8). We advise that Nigerians look at themselves and the country in a better light. Much cheering news abounds in the land amidst the suffering and helplessness. We are hopeful that Nigeria will survive the present hardship and will become the better for it. “And our hope does not disappoint us” (Rom 5:5). We all are stakeholders in the Nigerian project. We must therefore work hard in hand with a better understanding of ourselves to build the Nigeria of our dreams.

 

References

Anthony O. Eruch Rev. Fr.: (1989) “The contribution of Christianity to politics in Nigeria” A historic – Theological over – view, in Bulletin of Ecumenical Theology. The Ecumenical Association of Nigeria Theologians Vol.2 No. 1 Pp. 84-87.

Catholic Bishops: (1998) The Church and Democracy in Nigeria”. A collection of speeches made by the Catholic Bishops on the transition programme Pp. 1-31

Ekandem Cardial et. al.: (1988) “We cannot be silent” Bulletin of the Catholic Bishops Conference of Nigeria. Signed by cardinal Ekandem (Bishop of Ikot. Epene) Arch-Bishop A. O. Okogie (Arch  Bishop of Lagos, Arch Bishop S. N. Ezeanya (Arch Bishop of Onisha (Not dated but produce after Bishops conference in Jos 13-17

John Okwoeze Odey: “The Sharia and the rest of us Snaap Press Ltd, Enugu

Okogie A. O. Arch Bishop et.al: Catholic Bishops Conference of Nigeria Plenary Meeting Lagos February 23 – 26 Communique No 7 Constitution of the Republic of Nigeria 1979

Patrick Ngoyi Rev. Fr:   Introducing Justice Development and Peace Commission. A leaflet of introduction of the commission series one and two.

Segundo J. L.: (1985) The historical Jesus of synoptic of Jesus of Nazareth yesterday and today. Mary knoll N. Y. ob VoI.II

ETUDE CONTRASTIVE DES SYSTEMES PROSODIQUES DU FRANÇAIS ET DU YORUBA

Dr TANITOLORUN, Ezekiel Oladele

Departement du français

Tai Solarin University of Education

Ijagun, Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeira

 

Résumé

La prosodie est, d’une manière générale, l’inflexion, le ton, la tonalité, l’intonation, l’accent et la modulation que nous donnons à notre langue orale en fonction de nos émotions et de l’impact que nous désirons avoir sur nos interlocuteurs. En outre, c’est l’étude des traits phoniques, c’est-à-dire l’étude du rythme (vitesse d’élocution), l’accent et l’intonation. Elle est l’ensemble des phénomènes dits suprasegmentaux, c’est-à-dire échappant au découpage à savoir le rythme, l’accent, l’intonation et la quantité syllabique. Selon Martinet (1970 : 83), la prosodie est l’expression des faits phonétiques nécessairement présents dans tout énoncé parlé: que l’énergie avec laquelle on articule soit considérable ou limitée, elle est toujours là, à un degré quelconque; dès que la voix se fait entendre. Il est alors sine qua-non pour les locuteurs des langues, notamment du milieu scolaire d’avoir des connaissances approfondies du système des sons de ces langues en question. Cet article discute par conséquent, l’ensemble des phénomènes dits suprasegmentaux : l’inflexion, l’intonation, l’accent, la tonalité et la modulation de la langue française et du yorùbá.

Mots- clés : langue, prosodie, syllabe, accent, tonalité, oxyton, modulation.

Introduction

Pour parler une langue[24], il faut être capable d’émettre les sons et d’être ou non conscient des systèmes phonético-phonologiques qui la caractérisent. Selon Searle (1972 : 37), parler une langue, sur le plan verbal, c’est adopter un comportement, accomplir des actes de langage tout en respectant des règles complexes.  Lorsque les étudiants baignent dans un milieu purement plurilingue et que la langue à apprendre est étrangère – comme le cas des étudiants du Français au Nigéria – la maîtrise ou la pratique d’une telle langue étrangère devient un exercice souvent difficile. Dans une telle situation,  comme le suggère Tijani (2006 :14), le rôle de l’enseignant, est celui de proposer des pratiques pédagogiques appropriées capables d’aider les étudiants à surmonter leurs difficultés.

Cependant, il n’est pas toujours facile de transmettre ces pratiques pédagogiques appropriées surtout lorsque l’étudiant est peu exposé aux systèmes des sons de sa langue maternelle, ici le yorùbá[25] et surtout ceux de la langue visée, qui est la langue française. Comment peut-on en milieu alloglotte, amener les étudiants à développer des capacités et des habitudes pour communiquer, lire et écrire le français ? Cette question s’inscrit dans le cadre de notre sujet : Etude contrastive des systèmes prosodiques du français et du yorùbá.

Structure syllabique du français

D’après Guelpa (1997:119), la syllabe est l’unité prosodique par excellence. Une syllabe est une combinaison de sons prononçables d’une seule émission de la voix. La langue française distingue entre la syllabe ouverte (syllabe terminée par un phonème vocalique); et la syllabe fermée (syllabe terminée par un phonème consonantique) Ainsi, toutes les syllabes des mots de la phrase suivante sont fermées: ‘il sort par une porte sur l’autre cours’. Le français a une tendance marquée pour les syllabes de type consonne et voyelle (CV). Du point de vue de Léon Pierre (1992:96), il est possible d’indiquer la structure quantitative des syllabes, c’est- à-dire le nombre maximal de phonèmes à l’attaque et à la coda. Selon lui, la syllabe théorique la  plus lourde est de la forme CCCV ou VCCC, par exemple dans le mot ‘strict’ et ‘dextre’.

 

Structure des accents en français

Le français fait partie des langues à intonations, comme d’ailleurs la plupart des langues européennes. Selon Guelpa (1997 : 119), l’accent par nature, est une augmentation de l’intensité (énergie articulatoire) de la parole et de la hauteur de la voix qui frappe une syllabe du mot met le mot, en relief. Martinet (1970 :  89) quant à lui indique que l’accent est la mise en valeur d’une syllabe et d’une seule dans ce qui représente, dans une ligne déterminée, l’unité accentuelle. Dans la plupart des langues, selon lui, cette unité accentuelle est ce qu’on appelle couramment le mot. En français selon Grevisse et Goosse (1980 :  20), Martinet (1970 :  90),  Gbeto (2000 :  20), Guelpa (1997 : 120), Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997 : 30), l’accent frappe invariablement la dernière syllabe: lycée [li′se], intention [Ttã′sjS], université [ynivεRsi′te]. Le français du point de vue de Guelpa (op.cit) est une langue à oxytons. Selon Léon Pierre et Léon Monique  (op.cit), il ne sagit pas de l’accent que l’on utilise dans l’orthographe, c’est-à-dire de l’accent orthographique, mais d’un accent phonétique. Selon eux, la voyelle accentuée est plus longue et généralement plus forte. Elle peut aussi être mélodiquement plus haute ou plus basse. L’accent porte sur toute la syllabe où se trouve la voyelle finale prononcée et il est noté par une barre oblique devant cette syllabe accentuée comme dans des exemples précités. Les voyelles non finales sont dites inaccentuées. Elles sont normalement prononcées avec moins d’énergie que les voyelles accentuées. Le résultat est que leur timbre est alors moins net. Nous pourrions dire lorsque nous parlons, on ne place pas un accent sur chaque mot mais nous ne mettons un accent qu’à la fin d’un groupe de mots formant un groupe rythmique parce que l’accentuation crée un rythme dans un énoncé.

Intonation

Lorsque nous parlons, nous notons une modulation au niveau de la voix. La ligne musicale de notre discours constitue une mélodie.

Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997 :  87), nous propose ce dialogue illustratif:

–          Vous partez?

–          Oui.

–          Je vais avec vous.

–          Dépêchez- vous.

–          Formidable!

Ils notent qu’en considérant ce dialogue nous entendons monter notre voix pour la question, descendre pour la réponse, monter puis descendre pour la phrase suivante, descendre nettement pour l’ordre et enfin faire un saut brusque, généralement très haut pour l’exclamation. L’intonation est alors selon Grevisse et Goosse (1980 :  20), les variations de hauteur que l’on observe dans la phrase. En outre, l’intonation est la structuration mélodique des énoncés en groupes rythmiques; des modulations provoquées par des changements de hauteur dans la fréquence fondamentale autrement dit la courbe mélodique. D’après Rigault (1971  :  27-37), Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997  :  89-98), le français a quatre niveaux de hauteur intonative:

Les niveaux intonatifs de base

 

Niveau 4: question ou continuité  majeure

Niveau 3: continuité mineure

Niveau 2: fondamental usuel de la voix

Niveau 1: finalité et incise

 

 

 

Source: Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997  :  90)

 

Selon eux, au niveau 1, le patron de finalité descend de 2. Il est aussi, celui de l’incise qui est une sorte de parenthèse dans l’enoncé.

Le niveau 2 montre la hauteur moyenne des vibrations de nos cordes vocales. Le niveau 3 montre un patron montant de 2 à 3.

Le niveau 4 montre plusieurs patrons de question par exemple le plus courant est celui de la question totale de forme grammaticale  affirmative comme “tu viens?”, qui monte abruptement de 2 à 4. Nous présentons un exemple de chacun de ces patrons placés dans l’ordre des énoncés du point de vue de Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (op.cit).

Exemples des modalités intonatives.

Continuité mineure majeure   incise               finalité            question totale

4

3

2

1

 

 

 

 

Ils doivent partir en voiture, je crois à cinq heures.             Vous restez?

 

Source: Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997  :  90).

Quant à Grevisse et Goosse (1980 : 105-110), les modalitiés intonatives du français se répartissent á partir des particularités de  divers types de phrases:

Enoncé déclarative (ligne mélodique descente)

4

3                            ssé

2        Je suis pa-                    par la –

1                                                          ville

La phrase déclarative ou énonciative est prononcée avec une intonation d’abord ascendante puis descendante.

Énoncé impétatif (chute Mélodique)

4               Fer

3                            me

2                                                la

1                                                               porte

 

 

 

 

 

La phrase impérative est marquée d’habitude per une intonation descendante

Enoncé interrogatif (ligne mélodique montante)

4                                                main?

3                                          de –

2      Viens – tu

1

La phase interrogative est caractérisée par une intonation  montante.

Enoncé exclamatif

4          comme

3                             elle

2                                      est

1                                             pâle!

La phrase exclamative est, quand à la nature du message, une phrase énonciative, mais dans laquelle le locuteur exprime ces sentiments avec une force particuliève.

Du point de vue de Delattre (2007  :  1-7), le français a dix intonations de base. Il présente les quatre niveaux comme suit:

Finalité

Continuation majeure

Continuation mineure    déclarative

Implication

Commandement

 

 

Question

Interrogation                   interrogatives

 

Parenthèse

Echo                               paranthétiques

 

Exclamation               exclamative

A titre illustratif, Delattre nous présente un texte que voici:

Si ces oeufs  ______  continuation mineure

étaient frais, ______ continuation majeure

J’en prendrais. _____ finalité

Qui les vend? ______            interrogation

C’est bien toi, ______           question oui? Non?

ma jolie? ___________          écho

Evidemment,  ______           implication

monsieur. __________          parenthèse

Allons donc! _______           exclamation

Prouve-le-moi ______           commandement

A partir de cette illustration, Delattre a aussi établi la forme des courbes en présentant schématiquement les dix courbes de ces intonations fondamentales dans  un ordre gradué et les range de haut en bas de la plus ascendante à la plus descendante:

les dix intonations du français les plus fréquentes et leur  représentation schématique à l’aide de quatre niveaux de hauteur.

2-4+                                          Question

 

2-4                                            Continuation majeure

 

2-4_                                          Implication

 

2-3                                            Continuation mineure

4-4                                            Echo

 

 

 

1-1                                            Parenthèse

 

2-1                                            Finalité

 

4-1                                            Interrogation

 

4-1                                             Commandement

 

4-1                                              Exclamation

Source : Delattre (2007 :6)

 

Ces figures schématiques ci-dessus sont faites pour rappeler ces formes phonétiques réelles des courbes afin de mettre en évidence le rapprochement entre les figures schématiques et les formes réelles des courbes.  Ce propos illustratif de Delattre s’oppose aux données de Grevisse et Goosse. Il est évident que les langues en général manifestent plusieurs niveaux de courbes intonatives.

Structure syllabique du yorùbá.

En yorùbá, la structure de base de la syllabe est CV. Cependant, on remarque que certains nominaux  peuvent avoir comme structure de base VCV. Les exemples suivants sont assez illustratifs:

ilé  [ile]     ‘maison’

oko [oko] ‘ferme’

ọjà   [ɔʤà]  ‘marché’

omi  [omi]   ‘eau’

igi    [igi]     ‘arbre’

àga  [aga]   ‘chaise’

Aussi avons-nous remarqué  que la plupart des verbaux simples du yorùbá ont CV comme structure de base. Les éléments suivants exemplifient bien nos propos.

[ʤɛ]               ‘manger’

jó [ʤó]           ‘danser’

ṣe [ʃe]              ‘faire’

sùn [sũ]           ‘dormir’

lọ  [lɔ]    ‘aller’

pa [kpa]  ‘tuer’

Les monosyllabes

En yorùbá, parmi les monosyllabes, nous distinguons les mots de structure V, CV et une consonne nasale syllabique. Les termes de structure V comportent seulement des pronominaux sujets [Ó], et des termes des pronominaux objets [ɔ]. C’est ce qu’illustrent les exemples suivants:

Ó ti lọ [ó ti lɔ] il est parti

Mo rí ọ [mo ri ɔ] je t’ai vu

Les termes de structure CV qui comportent largement des verbaux ont été précités.

La consonne nasale syllabique

Il ressort qu’en yorùbá que la consonne nasale /n/ est syllabique et porteuse de ton tout comme les unités vocaliques. Par exemple, nous avons :

[ògoǹgo] ‘‘Ogòǹgò’’ –           autruche

[ó ń lɔ] ‘‘Ó ń lọ’’                    –           il part

[mò ń rĩ] ‘‘mò ń rìn’’  –           je marche

[kɔńsóńáǹtì] ‘‘Kóńsóńáǹtì’’ – consonne

Le système tonologique du yorùbá

Contrairement à la langue française, le yorùbá est une langue à tons. Ces tons ont une valeur distinctive. Le yorùbá  a un système tonologique qui lui est spécifique et dont l’inventaire se présente comme suit:

Inventaire des tons en yorùbá

Types de tons

Représentations

Exemples

Ton bas

[ \ ]

Ton haut

[ / ]

Ton moyen

[  ] (non marqué)

Le

Distribution des tons dans le système verbal et nominal du yorùbá

Selon Gbeto (2006  :  90-92), la distribution des tons varie du système verbal au système nominal. Ce propos est justifiable particulièrement dans les langues à tons comme le yorùbá.

Nous illustrons cette distribution comme suit:

Distribution du ton [ \ ]

Le ton bas apparaît au niveau des verbaux monosyllabiques simples á  l’infinitif, sur la voyelle radicale des verbaux, quelle que soit la nature de la consonne. Nous illustrons cette règle par les exemples suivants:

tà                    [tà]      ‘acheter’

kà                  [kà]       ‘conpter’

fà                    [fà]      ‘tirer’

gbà                 [gbà]    ‘prendre’

rà                    [Rà]     ‘acheter’

Distribution du ton haut [ / ]

Le ton haut apparaît au niveau de la voyelle finale du nominal de structure VCV. C’est ce qu’illustrent les exemples suivants:

 

ilé        [ilé]      ‘maison’

iṣé       [iʃɛ]     ‘travail’

adé      [adé]   ‘conronne’

igbó    [igbó]  ‘brousse’

Aussi, observons-nous que cette structure commence par une voyelle syllabique porteuse de ton moyen.

Distribution du ton moyen [  ] non marqué

Nous avons constaté que le ton moyen apparaît notamment lorsque les verbaux monosyllabiques sont en contexte. C’est ce que nous présentons dans les exemples suivants :

Ó ra ẹja           [ó Ra ɛʤa]                 ‘Il a acheté du poisson’

Mo jẹ ẹran      [mo ʤɛ ɛRã]   ‘J’ai mangé de la viande’

Mo ju òkò   [mo ʤu òkò]      ‘J’ai lancé de la pierre’

Ọmọ gba ẹkọ [ɔmɔ gba ɛkɔ] ‘L’enfant a reçu de la connaissance’

 

 

Approche contrastive des deux systèmes phonético-phonologiques des deux langues.

Notre approche contrastive s’articulera autour des systèmes vocaliques et consonantiques. Nous aborderons en premier lieu les systèmes vocaliques.

Au niveau des systèmes vocaliques

D’un point de vue phonétique, le français comporte 16 voyelles tandis que le yorùbá comporte 12. On se rend à l’évidence que les deux langues ont des voyelles en commun mais également des voyelles différentes. C’est ce que nous montrent les tableaux suivants:

Présentation des voyelles françaises en comparaison avec celles du yorùbá

Dissimilitude

 

 

 

y

 

ø    e

ə

œ

 

œ͂  T  T  T  T  T   a

ɑ           ãaa

 

 

 

 

Similitude/Ressemblance

 

i                              u           i͂                          u͂

 

e                               o

S

ɛ

T                              ɔ

a

ã

 

 

français

 

yorùbá

 

 

ø

 

 

 

L’observation des deux  tableaux met en évidence les ressemblances suivantes:

en français :                                      en yorùbá :

/i/ lit [li],                                             bí /bi/   ‘accoucher’

/e/ thé [te],                                          dé [de]            ‘arriver’

/ɛ/ tête [tɛt],                            ẹja [ɛʤa]         ‘poisson’

/T/ fin [fT],                                         ìyęn [ijT]         ‘cela’

/ã/ chant [ʃã],                          pàṣán   [paʃã]  ‘chicotte’

/u/ vous [vu],                          bú [bu]           insulter

/o/ dos [do],                            jó [ʤó]            danser

/S/ bon [bS],                            ìbọn [ibS]        ‘fusil’

/ɔ/ dot [dɔt],                           aṣo [aʃɔ]          ‘tissu’

/a/ date [dat],                          àdá [àdá]         ‘coupe-coupe’

Les voyelles du yorùbá et du français peuvent, du point de vue distributionnel apparaître en position initiale, médiane et finale. Les exemples suivants les démontrent:

en yorùbá:                                                    en français :

[alága] alága    ‘président’                  élevé       [eləve]

[ìjàwó] ìyàwó ‘femme’                      allée        [ale]

[ìgò]    igo                   ‘bouteille’                   moto        [moto]

[ìʃesí] iṣesi                   ‘manière’                    péché       [peʃe]

 

L’observation des deux tableaux met en évidence les dissemblances suivantes:

Le yorùbá comporte 12 voyelles;7 orales et 5 nasales tandis que le français en comporte 16; 12 voyelles orales et 4 nasales. D’une part, le yorùbá ne partage pas les phonèmes [i͂] et [u͂] avec le français et d’autre part le français ne partage pas les phonèmes [y], [ø], [ə], [œ], [œ͂] et [ɑ] avec le yorùbá.

Au niveau des structures syllabiques

Pour ce qui concerne les structures syllabiques, les deux langues comportent aussi bien des syllabes de structure similaire que des syllabes de structure différente.

S’agissant des syllabes de structure similaire, nous avons identifié celles qui suivent:

–          Les syllabes ouvertes, c’est-à- dire, terminées par une voyelle, comme le montrent les exemples suivants:

en yorùbá :                                               en français :

[ɔkɔ] ọkọ                    “mari”                         [su]      ‘‘su’’

[ìdòdó] ìdòdó             ‘‘nombril’’                              [vy]     ‘‘vu’’

[ilé]  ile                       ‘‘maison’’                               [sale]   ‘‘salé’’

 

 

–          Les syllabes fermées, c’est-à-dire terminées pas une consonne.

Les syllabes fermées n’existent qu’en français. Elles sont  soit monosyllabiques, bisyllabiques ou plurisyllabiques. Le yorùbá n’admet pas de syllabes fermées. En voici quelques exemples illustratifs en français :

[fis]                 ‘‘fils’’

[lyt]                 ‘‘lutte’’

[klasik]            ‘‘classique’’

[sãs]                ‘‘sens’’

Des syllabes au niveau desquelles soit la même consonne appartient à deux syllabes (consonne ambisyllabique), soit elle n’appartient à aucune syllabe (consonne extrasyllabique). C’est le phénomène d’ambisyllabicité et  d’extrasyllabicité qu’on ne rencontre qu’en yorùbá et où une voyelle peut représenter deux syllabes. En voici quelques exemples illustratifs:

bẹẹni [bέὲni]  “vrai”

bọọlù  [bɔɔlù] “ballon.”

Le français est une langue accentuée alors que le yorùbá est tonale. Que pouvons-nous retenir du système consonantique des deux langues ?

 

Au niveau des deux systèmes consonantiques des deux langues.

D’un point de vue phonétique, nous avons vu que le yorùbá comporte 18 consonnes et le français en comporte 21. Lorsqu’on  observe bien l’inventaire des consonnes du yorùbá et du français, on se rend à l’évidence que ces deux langues ont des consonnes identiques et des consonnes différentes. C’est ce que nous montrons dans les tableaux suivants:

 

 

Présentation des consonnes françaises en comparaison avec celles du yorùbá

Dissemblance

 

 

 

p

 

 

ʒ         v      z

ŋ

 

ɲ

 

 

 

 

 

ɥ

 

 

 

 

 

Ressemblance

b    d   g                          gb

 

t     k                               kp

 

 

 

f    s

 

ʃ                          h

 

m   n

ʤ

 

l      r    w  j

 

 

 

 

 

français

yorùbá

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

L’observation des tableaux met en evidence des resemblances au

 

 

 

 

 

L’observation des tableaux met en évidence des ressemblances au niveau des consonnes des deux langues. S’agissant des consonnes orales identiques nous avons:

-L’occlusive bilabiale voisée (b) ;

-les occlusives alvéolaires et non-voisées (d, t) ;

-les occlussives vélaires voisées et non-voisées (g, k) ;

– les fricatives labiodentales non-voisées [f, ʃ] ;

-la fricative alvéolaire non-voisée [s] ;

-la fricative palatale [j] ;

– la fricative voisée [l] ;

-la vibrante alvéolaire [r] ;

la fricative palatale [w].

 

En ce qui concerne les consonnes nasales qui leur sont communes, nous avons:

-la nasale bilabiale [m] ;

-la nasale alvéolaire [n].

L’observation des deux tableaux met en évidence les différences au sein des consonnes des deux langues. En effet, les consonnes orales et nasales qui n’existent qu’en yorùbá se présentent comme suit:

-les occlusives labio-vélaires voisées et non-voisées [gb, kp] ;

-la fricative glottale non-voisée [h] ;

-l’affriquée [ʤ].

S’agissant des consonnes spécifiques au français, nous avons:

-la bilabiale palatale [p] ;

-les fricatives voisées [ʒ, v, z] ;

-la nasale vélaire [ŋ] ;

-la nasale palatale [ɲ] ;

-la fricative voisée [ɥ].

Nous mentionnons que les consonnes n’apparaissent pas en position finale en yorùbá mais le français est caractérisé par plusieurs types de séquences consonantiques qui se présentent comme suit:

homme [ɔm]

dette [dɛt]

sale [sal]

développement  [devəlɔpmã]

possible [pɔsibl]

lettre    [lɛtR]

après       [apRɛ]

accent     [aksã]

simple     [sTpl]

Adresse   [adRɛs]

Les traits distinctifs des sons français et yorùbá

Les traits distinctifs selon Yamaro (2005) nous permettent d’écrire d’éventuelles règles rendant compte de certains changements phonétiques dans la prononciation de sons. Ces derniers sont essentiellement articulatoires.

Tous les phonèmes s’opposent les uns aux autres et forment un système nécessaire à la communication linguistique. Les tableaux des voyelles et des consonnes du français et du yorùbá que nous avons présentés plus haut nous ont montré l’ensemble des éléments phonologiques de ces deux langues.

Nous pouvons remarquer que chacun de ces éléments prononcés tout seul n’a pas de sens. Si nous prononçons /n/, /t/, /s/, / ʃ / du français ou du yorùbá, isolément, cela ne veut rien dire. Les phonèmes, voyelles ou consonnes, n’ont de valeur qu’en s’opposant les uns aux autres. Ils ont par conséquent une fonction oppositive ou distinctive.

Lorsqu’il s’agit de comparer les voyelles aux consonnes, nous notons aussi d’autres traits comme strident, coronal, continu, haut, bas etc.

 

Matrice phonologique des voyelles du français

Voyelles

Traits distinctifs

i

e

ε

T

a

y

ө

œ

W

α

u

o

ɔ

S

ã

Haut

+

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Bas

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Avant

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Arrière

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Fermé

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Ouvert

+

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Arrondi

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+

+

+

+

+

+

Nasal

+

+

+

+

 

Source: Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997:54)

Matrice phonologique des voyelles du yorùbá

Voyelles

Traits distinctifs

i

e

ε

T

ĩ

a

ã

ɔ

u

S

ũ

o

Haut

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Bas

+

+

Avant

+

+

+

+

+

Arrière

+

+

+

+

+

Fermé

+

+

+

+

Ouvert

+

+

+

+

Arrondi

+

+

+

+

+

Nasal

+

+

+

+

+

Source: Owolabi Kola (2009:140)

Ces deux tableaux de traits distinctifs des voyelles du français et du yorùbá nous montrent que ces voyelles se prononcent avec la même aperture sauf dans le cas où certaines voyelles n’existent pas dans une langue ou dans l’autre.

Les voyelles /y/, /ɵ/, /¶/, /œ/, /W/ appartiennent uniquement à la langue française alors que les voyelles / ῖ /, /ũ/ appartiennent au yorùbá.

Matrice phonologique des consonnes du français.

Consonnes

Traits distinctifs

p

b

M

t

D

n

k

g

ɲ

ŋ

f

v

s

z

ʃ

ӡ

ɭ

r

j

w

Sonant

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Voix

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Labial

+

+

+

+

+

+

Antérieur

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Postérieur

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coronal

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Continu

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Strident

+

+

+

+

+

+

Nasal

+

+

+

+

Source: Léon Pierre et Léon Monique (1997:56-57)

Matrice phonologique des consonnes du yorùbá

Consonnes

Traits distinctifs

p

b

m

t

d

n

k

g

gb

ʃ

r

y

f

j

ɭ

s

W

h

Sonant

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Voix

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Labial

+

+

+

+

+

+

Antérieur

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Postérieur

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Coronal

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Continu

+

+

+

+

+

+

+

Strident

+

+

+

+

+

Nasal

+

+

Source: Owolabi Kola (2009:140)

Il ressort de ces tableaux que les consonnes du français et du yorùbá présentent la même matrice phonologique sauf dans le cas où nous avons des consonnes différentes qui ne s’apparentent pas dans les deux langues.

Les consonnes /ɲ/, /ŋ/, /ӡ/, /z/ ne figurent pas dans la liste des consonnes yorùbá. Les consonnes /gb/, /h/ ne font pas parties des consonnes du français. Le son /ɲ/, du français dans des mots comme igname, digne, pagne etc. pourrait se réaliser en consonne /y/ du yorùbá dans des mots comme táyà (pneu), aya (femme), ayọ̀ (joie) etc.

Conclusion

Nous constatons que sur le plan phonético-phonologique, le français compte trente sept phonèmes dont vingt et un phonèmes consonantiques et seize voyelles dont douze orales et quatre nasales. Le yorùbá compte trente phonèmes dont dix huit phonèmes consonantiques et douze voyelles dont sept orales et cinq nasales. Ces phonèmes présentent des ressemblances et des dissemblances. Nous remarquons que le français est une langue caractérisée par l’intonation et l’accent alors que le yorùbá est une langue tonale.

REFERENCES

Awobuluyi, O. (2008): Ekọ Işęda-ọrọ Yorùbá, Akure, Montem Paperbacks

Bamgbose, Ayọ (2010): Fonólóji ati Girámà Yorùbá, Ibadan: University Press Plc.

Gbeto, Flavien (2000): Les emprunts linguistiques d’origine européenne en Fon (Nouveau Kwa, Gbe : Bénin) Germany, Rüdiger Köppe. Köln

Gbeto, Flavien (2006): La participation des consonnes comme unites porteuses de ton en Kotafon, dialecte gbe Sud-Bénin in : The Journal of West African Languages, Volume XXXIII, pp :87-107.

Grevisse et al. (1980): Nouvelle Grammaire Française, Paris, Duculot.

Guelpa, P. (1997): Introduction à l’Analyse Linguistique, Paris, Armand Col.

Léon Pierre et Léon Monique(1997): La Prononciation du Français, Paris, Editions Nathan.

Léon Pierre (1992) : Phonétisme et Prononciation du Français (avec travaux pratiques et corrigés), Paris, Nathan collection, fac.

Owolabi, Kola (2009): Ijinle Itupale Ede Yorùbá (1): Fonetiiki ati Fonoloji, Ibadan, Onibonoje Press & Books Industries (Nig.) Ltd.

Martinet, A. (1970) : Eléments de Liguistique Générale, Colin, no 349, 223p.

Rigault André (1971) : La grammaire du Français parlé, Paris, Librairie Hachette

Serles, John (1972), Les Actes de Language.Essai de Philisphie du Language, Paris, Hermann, 261p.

Tijani, M.A (2006). Difficultes de communication orale: Enquête sur les stratégies de communication des apprenants nigérians du français en situation exolingue; thèse de Doctorat, inédite, Université de France Comté

Yamaro, B. (2005): Le Baatɔnum: Étude Morphologique des Particularités du Nominal des Parlers Locaux, Mémoire de Maîtrise, Inédit, UAC.

 

REFERENCES WEBOGRAPHIQUES

Delattre Pierre (2007), Les Dix Intonations de base du français in

http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-111X%28196610%2940%3A1%3C1%3ALDIDBD%3E2.0.CO%3B2-W

Visité le 22 Novembre, 2013

Givon Thomas (1993): English function-based Introduction in

www.dep.uniparis8.fr/spip.php3f… Visité 10 le Janvier 2014.

L’EMPLOIE DU FOLKLORE DANS LA PÉDAGOGIE DU FRANÇAIS

LANGUE ÉTRANGÈRE (FLE)

Dr BABATUNDE, Femi

Department of French,

Tai Solarin University of Education,

Ijebu-Ode, Ogun State, Nigeria.

 

Résumé

Au Nigéria, le gouvernement a  récemment  fait sa déclaration officielle concernant l’enseignement et l’emploi de la langue française à tous les niveaux. Cela veut dire que le gouvernement Nigérian avait considéré l’adoption d‘une langue seconde (le français) comme un aspect très important dans la politique internationale, le développement économique, social, politique et éducatif du pays. Pour accomplir cette tâche, il faut que les professeurs varient leurs méthodes d’enseignement de temps en temps pour rendre facile l’acquisition de la langue chez les apprenants anglophones. Ainsi, dans ce module, nous allons viser la didactique du français au niveau secondaire tout en examinant comment le folklore peut être enseigné pour motiver les élèves.  On examine comment une classe du Français Langue Etrangère (FLE) peut se dérouler en employant les activités communicatives jusqu’à ce qu’on atteigne le perfectionnement linguistique chez les apprenants.

Mots clés: Français, folklore, pédagogie, apprenants.

 

Abstract

In Nigeria, the government has recently made its official statement on the teaching and use of the French language at all levels. This means that the Nigerian government considered the adoption of a second language (French) as a very important aspect of international politics which could lead to the economic, social, political and educational development of the country. To accomplish this task, teachers have to vary their teaching methods from time to time to make it easy the acquisition of French language by Anglophone learners. In this module, we will focus on the teaching of French at the level Secondary education while examining how folklore can be taught to motivate high school students. It examines how a class of French as a Freige Language (FLE) can be carried out using communicative activities until attainment of language development in learners.

Keywords: French, folklore, pedagogy, learners.

 

Introduction

À présent, l’enseignement et l’apprentissage du français  dans le système éducatif  du Nigéria occupent une place primordiale. Auparavant, la langue française a été déclarée comme deuxième langue officielle par l’ancien Chef d’état militaire, le défunt Général Sanni Abacha en 1986. Alors, les inscriptions pour l’apprentissage du français n’ont cessé de croître dans les écoles primaires jusqu’au niveau universitaire. Très récemment encore, c’est-à-dire trente ans après la déclaration du Président Sanni Abacha, on a entendu la nouvelle déclaration par le Ministre de l’Etat pour l’Education, le Professeur Anthony Awoga, lors de la visite de courtoisie de l’Ambassade de la France au Nigéria dans son bureau à Abuja. Le Ministre a déclaré que le français  sera obligatoire dans le programme scolaire à tous les niveaux d’éducation au Nigéria.

Mais malheureusement, au Nigéria, les proclamations officielles et privés à propos du statut privilégié du français ne sont pas suivies d’actions concrètes. C’est pour cela que le bilan des études françaises au Nigéria n’est jamais brillant.

À présent l’enseignement du français dans le nouveau programme scolaire au niveau secondaire attire notre attention. La nouvelle politique nationale de l’éducation de base (Basic Education) permet l’enseignement du français aux niveaux de Middle basic (années 4 à 6) et Upper Basic (années 7 à 9). Alors, le français est obligatoire au niveau JSS (Upper Basic 7 à 9). Selon Adeniyi E O, dans 9-Year Basic Education Curriculum-French Language for Junior Secondary School 1-3, publié par National Educational Research and Development Council (NERDC); la nouvelle politique a été générée par le besoin pour les Nigérians d’acquérir une compétence linguistique en français, langue internationale majeure utilisée comme lange véhiculaire pour les sciences, le commerce, les industries, la diplomatie et la technologie. Considérant la position géographique et le rôle joué par le Nigéria dans la sous-région de l’Afrique de l’Ouest, l’enseignement du français doit occuper des positions importantes au sein des organisations internationales comme la CEDEAO, l’ONU, l’UA, Interpol et la diplomatie en général. Compte tenu de cela, un nouvel accent doit être mis sur les contenus pédagogiques aussi bien que sur la méthodologie à employer par l’enseignant en classe.

Notre communication vise à expliquer  ce que c’est le folklore. Ensuite on va définir la pédagogie par rapport à l’apprentissage du français langue étrangère au Nigéria comme milieu Anglophone. Puis nous allons considérer comment enseigner le folklore dans une classe de langue française  tout en considérant le moment à enseigner le folklore aux apprenants et après cela, nous considérons les procédés pédagogiques à suivre pour enseigner le folklore aux apprenants. Et finalement, il y a la conclusion.

  1. 1. Définition du folklore

Selon La Grande Encyclopédie Larousse, le folklore est défini comme « les événements passés racontés comme des histoires en utilisant des animaux dans leurs personnages pour enseigner aux gens les morales, et les expositions des activités ».

D’après Le Grand Larousse Encyclopédique en 10 volumes, le folklore est conçu comme « la science des traditions, usages, croyances, légendes, chansons, littératures populaire d‘une région. Le folklore se rattache aussi à la mode par la diversité et les transformations des coutumes ».

En examinant ces définitions ci-dessus, nous constatons que le folklore constitue véritablement un élément très important dans la vie quotidienne de l’homme. Ainsi, on ne peut pas faire une distinction nette entre le folklore et les faits historiques de l’homme. On remarque aussi qu’il existe un rapport profond entre le folklore et la littérature, car il constitue un vaste réservoir de traditions racontées dans lequel tout le monde puise.

De plus, le folklore appartient à la communauté. L’individu, cependant, occupe une place prépondérante: c’est le chef de cérémonies, le meneur de jeu ou de la danse, c’est le récitant, l’orateur, l’acteur, le chanteur et le conteur populaire. Surtout, l’un des aspects les plus importants du folklore est la chanson. Les principaux thèmes de la chanson folklorique sont communs à tout le monde.

  1. 2. Genres de chansons et danses folkloriques

( i) Les chansons folkloriques:

  • les chansons narratives (légendes, romances)
  • les chansons historiques
  • les chansons de route et de conduite (compagnonnage)
  • les chansons d’adieu et de retour
  • les chansons pour accompagner
  • les actes de vie (le mariage, la mort, la naissance)
  • les chansons pour les fêtes populaires ou religieuses.

Ainsi que les nombrables chansons qui traitent de l’amour, du métier et ainsi de suite.

 

(ii)  Les danses folkloriques:

II y en a beaucoup dans le monde et chacune est à la mode de la région à laquelle elle appartient.

Par exemple:

Dance

Région

Caractéristiques

-la bourrée

massif central de la France

une danse de rythme binaire, dans laquelle chape reprise est précédée d’une ritournelle et les danseurs échangent des baisers.

– la gigue

L’cosse

Une danse de rythme vif, caractérisée par des mouvements alternatifs des pointes et des talons.

– les danses traditionnelles

Nigéria

Les danses rythmiques, toujours accompagnées du tam-tam où les danseurs/danseuses font des mouvements cadencés du corps.

Enfin, il faut remarquer que toutes les représentations folkloriques quelles soient récitées, ou bien chantées sont toujours accompagnées de quelques instruments musicaux comme le baïan en Russie, la balalaïka, la pandero en Espagne, le cymbalum en Hongrie et en Afrique le tam-tam et le balafon.

  1. 3. Le sens de la pedagogie

 

Selon La Grande Encyclopédie de Larousse. La pédagogie est conçue comme « celle qui unit l’enfant à ceux qui ont l’éducation pour fonction institutionnelle ». La deuxième définition est tirée du dictionnaire Petit Robert, «La pédagogie est la science de l‘éducation des enfants».

Troisièmement, d’après J. Leif (1974) – La philosophie de l’Education. Vocabulaire Pédagogique: la pédagogie se définit comme « l’art d’enseigner», « plus largement, la pédagogie est une réflexion sur les doctrines, les systèmes, les méthodes, les techniques d’éducation et d’enseignement, pour en apprécier la valeur en recherchant l’efficacité, pour améliorer les démarches, les moyens élaborées en vue de fins proches ou lointaines, de buts que se proposent l’éducation et l’enseignement »

Nous remarquons dans les définitions données en haut que la pédagogie égale l’éducation et l‘enseignement des enfants. C‘est une situation de formation de perfectionnement, de sensibilisation et de recyclage qui influence la vie, le fonctionnement harmonieux de l’intelligence et de la raison des enfants. Donc, c’est très important pour l’éducateur ou le pédagogue de viser à travers l’instruction, l’entrée dans la vie et dans la société de l’enfant. On peut résumer que l’enfant est situé au centre, autour duquel gravitent la pédagogie et les autres éléments de l’enseignement, grâce aux professeurs qui enseignent l’enfant. Passons ensuite a l’enseignement du folklore dans une classe du français langue étrangère.

  1. 4. L’enseignement du folklore dans une classe du Français Langue Etrangere (FLE)

 

Si on parle de la pédagogie, il est tout à fait évident qu’elle mène à l’enseignement et à la formation de l’enfant. Mais, pour qu’il y ait une éducation efficace, il faudra quelques éléments socioculturels qui sont à la fois éducatifs et psychologiques. II faudra aussi quelques procédés pédagogiques valables pour créer de l’automatisme de maniement du langage chez les enfants. Alors, l’un de ces éléments socioculturels très indispensables dans l’enseignement du français langue étrangère est le folklore. En enseignant le folklore, aux élèves, l’enseignant doit faire appel à l’imagination et à la pensée des élèves. Donc, la compréhension d’un folklore mène à la réflexion et à la compréhension des éléments  culturels chez les élèves.

 

De plus, il y a les éléments didactiques dans le folklore. C’est-à-dire qu’il enseigne la morale aux élevés. Cela peut être un folklore qui raconte la vie et la mort d’un héros fabuleux; sa victoire, et sa défaite sur le champ de bataille. Puisque le folklore comprend la danse, la chanson, les gestes, le drame, la narration etc., le professeur doit les employer dans la pédagogie du français comme éléments de motivation chez les apprenants.

 

D’ailleurs, le folklore peut être présenté aux élèves comme un moyen audiovisuel. Cela fait appel à toutes possibilités de représentations audiovisuelles dont on dispose dans la pédagogie du français. On peut enseigner les chansons folkloriques, avec un magnétophone tout en faisant une projection d’un film des chanteurs et des danseurs folkloriques.

De cette façon, les élèves arriveront à une compréhension satisfaisante et à une mémorisation qui doivent leur permettre de connaître parfaitement le français.

 

  1. 5. Quand est-ce qu‘il faut enseigner un folklore ?

 

Premièrement, le professeur peut lancer un folklore, soit récité, soit chanté, au commencement  d’une classe de langue pour éveiller les élèves d‘une façon vivante. Le professeur peut enseigner aux élèves une chanson comme celle-ci:

Au clair de la lune

Mon ami Pierrot

Prête-moi ta plume

Pour écrire un mot

Ma chandelle est morte

Je m’ai plus de feu

Ouvre- moi ta porte

Pour l’amour de Dieu.

Avec cette merveilleuse chanson folklorique, les élèves seront éveillés à suivre la leçon du jour. Le professeur peut raconter l’histoire folklorique qui est à l’origine de cette chanson aux élèves.

 

Deuxièmement, le folklore peut être employé au cours d’une leçon de langue. Après la phase de l’exploitation, si le professeur constate que ses élèves ont l’air fatigué il pourrait lancer un récit folklorique pour les éveiller.

Enfin, le folklore est très bon pour mettre fin à la classe de langue. Ainsi, les élèves seront très contents de rentrer chez eux.

  1. 6. Les procédés pédagogiques

 

Maintenant, voyons une chanson folklorique du métier  et considérons comment l’enseigner aux élèves du niveau J.S.S. III.

 

Mon père avait cinq cents moutons:

Mon père avait cinq cents moutons (bis)

Dont j’étais la bergère

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

Dont j’étais la bergère.

La première fois qu’ je les mènent aux champs (bis)

Le loup mène a pris quinze

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

Le loup m’en a pris quinze.

Le fils du roi vint à passer (bis)

M’a rendu ma quinzaine,

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

M’a rendu ma quinzaine.

Quand je tondrai mes blancs moutons (bis)

Vous donnerez la laine,

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

Vais donnerez la laine.

 

De la laine je n’en veux point (bis)

Je veux ton cœur volage

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

Je veux ton cœur volage.

Mon cœur volage n’est point pour vous (bis)

II est en manage

Lonlaire, lonlaire, lonlaire, lonla,

II est en mariage.

Remarquons que cette chanson est dramatique et esthétique à la fois. C’est une chanson historique et folklorique. Le schéma proposé doit être adapté selon le niveau et l’âge des enfants. Alors, il ne constitue pas un modèle fermé.

  1. 7. La démarche à suivre
  • Présentation :

Le professeur fait entendre cette chanson une première fois sans autre préambule que l’indication rapide de l’historie qui est à l’origine de cette chanson et du thème général. Ne communique alors aucun texte écrit des paroles de la chanson. L’exercice est donc un exercice de perception et de compréhension auditive. II nécessite aussi une deuxième audition. Après, on peut interroger quelques élèves pour savoir quelles bribes de la chanson ils ont retenues.

La présentation peut se faire par différents procédés : figurines au tableau de feutre, dessins, images etc.

  • Explication:

Cette phase peut s’effectuer à différents niveaux suivant la chanson folklorique:

  • niveau lexical et syntaxique;
  • niveau culturel;
  • niveau poétique;
  • niveau musical

Après la troisième audition, le professeur explique aux élèves quelques mots et expressions difficiles. Exemple:- des moutons, la bergère, le loup, tondrai, je n‘en veux point, un cœur volage, etc.

Ensuite, les élèves répètent les paroles de la chanson après le professeur vers par vers; strophe par strophe. Cette répétition aide au travail de mémoire, particulièrement intense et utile non seulement à l’apprentissage du texte, mais encore à l’apprentissage de la langue. La reconstitution du texte parlé et non chanté est le but unique qu’on se propose jusque là.

  • Exploitation:

D’abord, le professeur fait chanter les élèves collectivement. Puis, on continue avec des activités communicatives y compris les exercices structuraux, phonétiques lexicaux, grammaticaux etc.

Par exemple: –

A

  1. Mon père est ___________ (bergère, berger)
  2. La bergère est une ___________  (garçon, fille)
  3. Combien de moutons avait la bergère?

(200, 300, 500) etc.

B.

  1. une douzaine  →              à peu près douze
  2. une quinzaine
  3. une vingtaine
  4. une trentaine
  5. une cinquantaine
  6. une centaine → etc.

C. Liez le pronom avec la forme correcte du verbe avoir à l’imparfait.

J’                    avaient

Tu

II                     avais

Elle                 aviez

Nous               avais

Vous               avait

Ils

Eles                 avions

(les élèves font correspondre les personnes avec l’action. Puis ils les mettent en ordre)

 

D.        berger –         /bϵRZe/

bergère –        /bϵRzϵR/

Loup –           / lu/ etc.

 

  • Fixation:

La leçon peut aboutir à l’exécution de la chanson. Le professeur demande aux élèves de chanter cette chanson plusieurs fois. Durant ce travail, le professeur peut remettre le texte aux élèves. Donc, les élèves vont mémoriser la chanson strophe par strophe.

 

  • Dramatisation:

Dans cette phase, les élèves vont dramatiser cette chanson en faisant des gestes. Le professeur appelle un élève et une élève qui vont représenter respectivement le fils du roi et la bergère. Quelques-uns des élèves vont représenter des moutons en s’agenouillant et en criant comme des bêtes. Et puis, il y aura un élève qui va se déguiser comme le loup.

Enfin, ils vont créer une mise en scène intéressante et dramatique tout en chantant cette chanson.

  • Contrôle:

Le professeur pose alors des questions variées aux élèves pour contrôler leurs acquisitions. Par exemple:

a)      Combien de moutons avait le père de bergère?

b)      Quel animal a tué des moutons?

c)      Combien de moutons l’animal a-t-il tué?

d)     Cet animal est…………….(domestique, sauvage) etc.

Le professeur veillera à la répétition exacte de chaque groupe phonique et de  l’intonation. De cette façon, les idées principales seront retrouvées par les élèves qui résumeront la chanson écoutée au fur et à mesure de l’explication.

Finalement, comme devoir, le professeur peut demander aux élèves de faire un dessin imaginaire de l’histoire de cette chanson folklorique. Par exemple, la scène va montrer une bergère qui veille sur des moutons aux champs, et le loup qui arrive sur la scène et un prince à cheval qui passe.

Conclusion

Nous venons de constater que le folklore avait offert l’occasion de faire travailler les élèves dans une classe de français langue étrangère. Ainsi, le professeur avait profité de cette section pour enseigner les éléments de la grammaire, la phonétique, le lexique, la culture, la morale, les beaux-arts etc.

Tout cela va contribuer au développent total des enfants. Le dessin exige aussi des qualités d’observation, d’imagination créatrice et d’expression libre chez les apprenants.

On constate aussi que le folklore est véritablement indispensable aux apprenants dans le domaine de la pédagogie du français langue étrangère. Concernant les élèves dont les connaissances de langue ne sont que d’un niveau élémentaire ou moyen, le folklore est à la fois un moyen de perfectionnement linguistique et une excellente méthode d’approche de la civilisation. Les enfants aiment chanter, ils aiment raconter des histoires, donc, ils seront intéressés par cette leçon.

 

Bibliographie

AKEUSOLA, Olu (1996): Guide pratique de l’enseignement de la langue française, Lagos, A-Triad Associates.

ANDRE, Reboullet (1971): Guide Pédagogique pour le Professeur du Français Langue Etrangère, Paris,  Hachette.

CARIE, Jean-Marc et al (1980): Jeu, Langue et Créativité, Paris, Hachette.

CARIE, Jean-Marc et al (1984): Manipulation de Textes de Chanson dans «Le Français dans le monde», avril, pp.57-60.

BERNARD, Evelyne (1991): L’Approche Communicative Théorie et Pratique, Paris, Clé           International.

CHRISTINE, T. (1994): La classe de langue, Paris, Clé International.

COSTE, D., GALISSON, R. (1976): Dictionnaire de didactique des langues, Paris, Hachette.

Federal Ministry of education,  (2007): French Language for Junior Secondary School 1-3,        Abuja,             NERDC.

Federal Ministry of Education, (2012): Senior secondary school curriculum French language for            SS1-3,             Abuja,  NERDC.

GRAND-CLEMENT, O. et al.(2007): On y va! Méthode de français Senior Secondary School, Ibadan,             Spectrum Books/Clé International.

La Grande Encyclopédie Larousse, volume 2 (1975), Paris, Larousse.

La Grande Encyclopedie Larousse, Tome 19 (1976), Paris, Larousse.

Le Grand Larousse Encyclopédique en 10 volumes (1960), Paris, Larousse.

LEIF, J.(1974): Philosophie de l’éducation, Tome 4, Delgrave.

Les Modules (2000): Recueil des fiches pédagogiques destines à l’enseignement de FLE, Version          PA 3.0, Jos, CFTD.

 

ROBERT, Paul (1969): Le Petit Robert-Dictionnaire de la langue française, Paris, le Robert.

ROBERT, Paul (1967): Le Petit Robert – Dictionnaire de la langue Française, Paris, Le Robert.

CONFLICTS AND CONFLICTS RESOLUTION IN ELECHI AMADI’S THE GREAT PONDS: A REAPPRAISAL

Dr Flavien Mahutondji GANKPE

Département d’Anglais,

University of Abomey-Calavi

 

Abstract

The main focus of the present research work is based on Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds which is an enactment of a contest between two villages – Chiolu and Aliakoro over the ownership of fishing rights at the great ponds of Wagaba. Consequently, a war of attrition develops between them. When decisive victory eludes each side, the matter is referred to the gods under the terms that Olumba’s survival for six months would confirm the ownership by Chiolu. Just as Chiolu seems poised for victory, a more universal affliction in the form of a ravaging influenza sweeps across the world, rendering the business of the ponds insignificant. Moreover, the suicide of Wago, the leading Aliakoro warrior inside the contested pond, renders it useless, because it is a taboo to fish in such polluted waters. In sum, the story clearly shows the futility of human endeavour and strife. This paper presents, discusses and reappraises, conflicts and conflicts resolution in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds.

Key words: conflicts, resolution, The Great Ponds, novel.

 

Résumé

Ce travail de recherche a pour point focal  le roman The Great Ponds de Elechi Amadi dont le contenu est un récit de conflit entre  deux villages à savoir Chiolu et Aliakoro sur le droit de pêche et de la détention du titre de propriété des grands trous à poissons de Wagaba. La conséquence de ce conflit est une série de guerres et d’attaques transformées en guerre  entre les deux villages. Lorsqu’il y a une victoire décisive d’un côté, l’affaire est confiée aux divinités pour que la vie de Olumba durant six mois confirme le droit de propriété à Chiolu. Mais lorsque Chiolu s’approche de la victoire, il y a de difficultés, de ravage officiel à travers le monde qui viennent balayer les efforts et anéantissent l’affaire de trous à  poissons. Mieux, le suicide de Wago, le chef de guerre du village d’Aliakoro dans l’affaire des trous à poissons contestés rend le conflit inutile, car c’est un tabou de pêcher dans de telles eaux polluées. En somme, le récit montre clairement la futilité de l’effort humain face aux conflits violents. Cet article présente, discute et revisite la thématique du conflit et la résolution de conflits à travers le roman The Great Ponds (Les grands trous de poissons) de Elechi Amadi.

Mots clés : conflits, résolution, Grands trous de poissons, roman.

 

Introduction

People often agree that one of the things that separate human beings from animals is the ability of human beings to have conflict and still manage to resolve this conflict and restore peace. So, conflict will also exist among human beings no matter how hard people try to prevent it. But the most significant thing is the ability to resolve and transcend those conflicts in order to maintain peace among all Nations. Many writers, be they Europeans, Asians or Africans have addressed the issues of conflict in various ways in their works.

“Life is not all beer and skittles,” so the saying goes. In other words, life is sometimes fun, and sometimes a string of hardships, troubles, and misunderstandings of all sorts. In that respect, conflict is part and parcel of our daily lives. Even within us, there is conflict. It is not unusual that we as human beings have inner struggles. But, the most difficult conflict to resolve seems to be the one that we have with other people, other groups of people, other nations or even other countries. For an understanding to exist among all people, good strategies to resolve conflict and restore peace become necessary. Writers all over the world, particularly African writers, have tackled issues of conflict and conflict resolution, especially war and its corollaries in many of their works. Nigerian writers alone had devoted many of their works to one major conflict in the nation, the Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970). Among these works are Chinua Achebe’s Girls at War and other Stories, J. P. Clark’s Casualties, Wole Soyinka’s Madmen and Specialists, Chukwuemeka Ike’s Sunset at Dawn, Isidore Okpewho’s The Last Duty, Cyprian Ekwensi’s Divided We Stand, Buchi Emecheta’s Destination Biafra, and Elechi Amadi’s Sunset in Biafra. Amadi also deals with the issue of conflict in his novel

  1. 1. Statement of the Problem

Conflict Resolution that has become a very significant aspect of human efforts to maintain peace worldwide will not have its fullest meaning unless there are conflicts, to begin with. Indeed, many conflicts exist at home, at work, at church, at the hospital, and in all compartments of society. As varied as conflicts may be, there are many strategies to handle them as well. These strategies include arbitration, conciliation, mediation, negotiation, and restorative justice, among many others. Literature as a corrective weapon, discusses various conflicts – from Character vs. Self conflict through Character vs. Nature conflict as well as ways and means to resolve them.

  1. 2. Limitation of the study

This research work does not pretend to discuss all different kinds of conflict among individuals, groups, and nations. Instead, my research will concentrate on pointing out instances of conflict in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds, and address whether or not the writer suggests strategies to resolve the conflicts thus identified, and how the identified conflicts ended up being resolved at all if that were the case.

  1. 3. Significance of the study

Undoubtedly, it is the ability to effectively resolve conflicts that characterizes human beings. Identifying the conflict in The Great Ponds and discussing effective strategies to resolve it will certainly help in the process of resolving other kinds of conflict. The work is also significant in the sense that this researcher is a trade unionist and has included some of his personal experiences in conflict resolution.

 

  1. 4. Methodology

The overall research approach to the present research work is interdisciplinary in character and descriptive in nature. Several theoretical and conceptual frames serve to guide the examination of my research questions, viz.: 1. what is the place of conflict in Nigerian Literature? 2. How does conflict in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds unfolds and how is it resolved?

4.1. Definition and Significance to Research

By methodology is meant the aggregate plan by which one intends to carry out a research work. It is the basic conceptual framework on which the whole research is based. As such, each step in the plan, the material or subject to be used, the relevance of that particular plan as well as the participants in the research and the various research instruments, all should be clearly summarized under the methodology. Also, research methods are usually chosen based on the nature of the problem to be investigated and the relevant data to be collected.

 

4.2. Descriptive Survey Method

The present research work is essentially a descriptive one based on abundant documentation. Actually, the Descriptive Survey Method is an extensive literary description and presentation of results of research with regard to the nature, the function, the cases and dynamics of an event. This method is different from the historical method where the emphasis is on studying past records. In that vein, my study is focused on teaching materials and library sources – both the physical and virtual library [the Internet] sources. Consequently, I have selected written materials in the library and on the Internet, which have been helpful in a variety of ways in confirming and strengthening my insight into the topic. Besides the library instruments, my research instruments also include the linguistic instruments, that is the languages in which I have access to the written materials that I drew from in writing this thesis. They are two in number – English and French. I read documents in these two languages in order to have a clear grasp of the issue that I elected to address in the present work.

Basically, the approach I used in tackling the issue at hand is eclectic and interdisciplinary as I have tried to call on historical as well as literary documents while sifting the wheat from the chaff to substantiate any claims I have made in the work.

 

 

 

 

  1. 5. Conflicts in  Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds : A Reappraisal

The Great Ponds of Elechi Amadi is a dramatic fictional account of conflict between two villages and the judicial procedure of oath-taking, phenomena familiar from political anthropology.

War and its effects define the plot of The Great Ponds. The war is fought between the village of Chiolu and the village of Aliakoro over fishing rights on Wagaba Pond, one of the ponds alluded to in the title of the novel. Thirty years prior to the time of the story, Chiolu warriors won a battle with those of Aliakoro, and since then members of Chiolu have claimed Wagaba Pond and fished in it without hindrance. Aliakoro villagers, however, have begun to poach in the pond, and Chiolu sends a war party to catch the poachers.

The novel then begins with a clash over the ownership of fishing ponds which lie between the village of Chiolu and Aliakoro. The pond has been disputed for years, and Chiolu controls them at the present by the virtue of a battle won some thirty years before. Aliakoro has never acknowledged the legitimacy of Chiolu’s claim, however, and sends a group of men to fish in them. When Chiolu men led by Olumba capture two people of Aliakoro and demands a ransom, an escalating series of hostilities between the villages occurred. Attack follows attack and hostilities finally reach a level at which all negotiations break down. It is worth mentioning that negotiation is one conflict resolution strategies. Farms are deserted and starvation threatens in what has become an all-out war. At this point surrounding villages of the same clan fell their welfare endangered and intervene to enforce a settlement. They tried mediation which is also one of the strategies of conflicts resolution. This mediation led Olumba, Chiolu’s strongest and most able warrior to take an oath of the behave of Chiolu’s village. If he lives for six months, the ponds are Chiolu’s and if he dies, they are Aliakoro’s.  The effects of the oath on Olumba provide the denouement of the novel. A tremendous weight of guilt, responsibility and impotence in the face of the gods falls directly on him, and the story builds to a powerful climax.  The Great Ponds is especially interesting to me as a fictional counterpoint to my own study of an inter-village land feud.

To go in more detail, I have to say that the novel starts with the mission assigned to Olumba and his six men. They are committed a mission by the village elders and their chief Eze- Diali.  The mission is to bring one or more of Aliakoro’s men who may come to poach in the ponds of Wagaba. The line of their action will have two effects. Firstly, it will prove their charges of poaching against the people of Aliakoro, secondly the heavy ransoms they will be obliged to pay will be a deterrent. Olumba was appointed the chief of the mission

‘Olumba is the man for the job. We know that he has led many exploits like this one.’ Said Chituru, one of the elders.

Olumba relied on gods, on his traditional powers and the fact that he has a big confidence on amulet also brings him to look for fight to test the power of his charm.

‘This charm is for fighting and it had cost him a lot of money’ (P4) He is then trying to prove that he has been all the time preparing himself for fights. In this context, it is obvious that he should accept the job committed to him to arrest the poachers because this will give him an opportunity to test the strength of his costly charm. The   pond which they are fighting for is very rich in fish. When the men from Aliakoro came to poach, they were discussing among themselves and one of them said:

‘The pond of Wagaba can never be impoverished’. The other one replied by acknowledging by saying that ‘I have never seen a pond so full of fish’. Another man from Aliakoro complained that ‘A pity it doesn’t belong to Aliakoro’ Someone else replied ‘It may one day’ and to the question: ‘How?’ He said ‘Eze Okehi, our chief, intends to claim it’ His fellows told him ‘Chiolu’s claim to it is dubious’ and that from what his grandfather told him, ‘the pond rightly belongs to us’ The consequence of this position is: ‘That will mean a lot of fighting’ To other man to agree that: ‘The pond is worth fighting for, isn’t it?’(P7)   Someone else to support his views by recognizing that: ‘It certainly is. It will be a great day when we will fish here in daylight without any fears of challenge’. Hardly had they finished with this discussion when a violent fight clashed between them and Chiolu’s people who laid an ambush for   them. During the fight, Eziho, one the men of Olumba faced a dangerous opponent. He struggled severely with him before being caught thanks to Olumba’s assistance. This poacher’s name is Wago the leopard- killer (P8). The harvest of the mission is not less important because they succeeded to arrest three poachers. Olumba was personally in charge of Wago the leopard killer who was disregarding him through his brave words till he proposed that they killed their prisoners. ‘Look, why don’t we kill these men right away and declare war on Aliakoro?’ (P9) But when he discovered that one of his prisoners was a brave man, his anger got down because he knew that: ‘Brave men had every right to talk anywhere’(P10)

The discussion between Wago the leopard killer and Olumba proved that Aliakoro’ people didn’t regret their action and they were claiming that the pond of Wagaba was theirs and if they came to fish in the night it was to avoid open conflict until their right has been established beyond doubt. When they reached the pond of Walele, Wago pushed Olumba violently to the left and he fell awkwardly into the cold water. Wago himself dived to the right. By the time Olumba recovered sufficiently to give orders Wago disappeared. They brought then   the two   remaining captives to their chief Eze-Diali’s house. Eze Okehi in p13 sent two of his people to ask  to his colleague Eze Diali to release his captives but the chief of Chiolu, Eze Diali required that he should come for negotiations with the elders of the Aliakoro village and then the discussion could be made on the vexing problem of poaching.’ Eze Okehi came then with his people to try to obtain the release of their men captured the previous night.  Diali made a request to Eze Okehi:  ‘The circumstances under which your men were captured were such that we shall demand a ransom for their release’.

Okehi wishes   to know the circumstances at which the prisoners were captured.  Chileru and Ejimole were brought forward and asked to describe the incidents of the past night. Chileru gave a vivid description and ended by saying; ‘The amazing thing about all this is that we were doing no fishing when we were attacked.’  (P18). Eze-Diali was surprised and asked them: ‘Where were you when you were attacked?’ ‘In one of our ponds.’ He replied. Diali queried: ‘What were you doing there at that time of the night?’ ‘‘We went to lay traps for wild hogs,’ He declaredOkehi put it to Diali that his men had no right to attack his men and that the ponds which they are claiming belong to them and that they have not pressed their claims because there have been no molestations until yesterday when his boys were kidnapped? Diali made it clear to them that they were not prepared to discuss the ownership of this pond. It is either they paid   the ransom they would   suggest or   get back without their two men. Okehi said that they didn’t come with money.  Diali made it clear before they came that a ransom would be paid   for each of the prisoner. Okehi asked him how much is to be paid and DiaIi said eight hundred manillas. Okehi asked if they had committed murder, on the process of bargaining for the reduction of the amount of manillas, a big conflict aroused between the two warriors Wago and Olumba. Each group claimed the ownership of the pond.The anger in these two men Olumba and Wago the leopard killer increased. Words of wisdom were spoken to them to appease them by Diali in a very low voice:

‘Listen everybody and please leave your matchets alone. There is nothing to be gained by fighting. We are here for a peaceful settlement. If we don’t agree today, we can always arrange another meeting.’ (P22) To Wago and Olumba , he said:’You are both men of valour. But valour that is not tempered with wisdom is useless and even dangerous. In a situation like this, fighting does not solve anything. Pepper can never be one of the ingredients of a soothing balm.’

As it can be noticed, this speech delivered slowly and quietly had a soothing effect and the two men held their peace. One can notice here that Diali developed one of the conflict resolution strategies by using words of wisdom to make temporary reconciliation between the two warriors Wago and Olumba. They finally agreed   that 5 hundred manillas could be paid, which people of Aliakoro paid. After the payment, Okehi told Diali that he was not going to give up his ownership over the ponds belonging to his people. Both chiefs went into a bet and left in anger. Diali called for a meeting with his elders concerning the pond issue, they discussed on how to fight back and claim their pond. They all agreed that the battle will be fought at Wagaba pond; he also told them to go and sharpen their instrument. The pond of Wagaba was being guarded by Olumba and his men, other brave people were working out details of strategy while Achichi the dibia made charms for fighting, brought them out, dusted and strengthened   by the appropriate rituals. Olumba, the great warior also made preparation for all his charms that was to be used in winning the great battle ahead.

Olumba and his men set out for the battle. When they got there they saw no sign of their enemy, they thought their enemy changed their mind. They decided to wait for them as planned. They waited a while before the sign of their enemy approaching was detected. Olumba feared that they had already been spotted out by their enemy. Finally their enemy arrived with Wago the leopard killer as the leader, Olumba men have taken their position and watched Wago and his men from a distance. Wago realized that fishing in the pond would have been easier if they had occupied the pond first. Wago mishandled the situation with his men by giving out instruction in anger at a wrong timing.  Meanwhile, Olumba’s men were watching them and they beclouded Aliakoro people by a swarm of arrows. Wago slowly and quietly withdrew from his men and sat down a few paces away.  ‘he sat rapidly for some time and then got up, in a loud voice  he said : Men of Aliakoro, if you die today, you will not die tomorrow. The eagle has perched within shooting range! eight-headed warriors,  eyes of the night, leopard- killers, follow me’. His speech warmed up his men and the battle began.  Olumba’s men were stronger than Wago’s men, this didn’t make Wago relent. He went into battle with Olumba, these two warriors fought to a point that Wago raced away. Olumba watched his enemy until the primeval woods swallowed him. Wago bit his lips and rejoined his men.

Chiolu lost four men in battle and Aliakoro lost thirteen men. It was a clear victory for the fighters of Chiolu; they were happily welcomed by their people. They decided to celebrate less for all they know this could be the beginning of the battle. So, Olumba’s men kept watching and waiting at the pond for eight days with no clashes. Chiolu felt that the Aliakoro had learnt their lesson and decided to prepare for a victory dance.

After their victory celebration, the next day Ikechi, one of the Chiolu warriors went to the pond to inspect the fish trap. As he was emerging from a clump of bushes, he heard some rustling and low voices from the other side of the pond by which he had been walking. He peered between the trees and saw several men fully armed. He looked closely and saw Wago the leopard killer among the group. Okechi quietly took to his heels but he was spotted and chased by Wago’s men; he was able to escape alive. The village of Chiolu was alarmed.

The next morning, Olumba men were prepared for battle. They were at the pond very early, Olumba divided his men into three groups and sent them into different direction in the forest, Olumba led the smallest group. As soon as they were inside the forest they heard footstep running towards the pond of Wagaba enemy scout on doubt. The invaders were fishing, talking and feeling much at ease. Olumba studied the situation for some time and knit his brow in perplexity. He did not quite understand this show of confidence on the part of their enemies. As soon as they were within shooting range, Olumba’s sent a volley of arrows into the advancing mass more than three times before the Wago’s began to run. The Olumba ran after them at a point only Wago and few other men stood up to the challenge and slowly diminished the distance between them and their retreating foes.  Olumba shouted in a loud voice, his matchet curved through the air bringing down with it the right arm of the man in front of him, Olumba shouted again and another volley of arrows from the other side of the path visited the pursuers. At the third shout from Olumba,  his men in hiding place emerged from the bush. Then suddenly a fresh wave of invaders moved into the attack. Chiolu was taken aback but recovering from the surprise fought back gallantly. Olumba fought like a maniac, foaming at the mouth not out of fatigue but out of sheer anger and an inflexible determination.

Once more Chiolu held her own. Aliakoro was being driven back gradually. Olumba urged his men on, shouting, slashing, dodging. When he thought victory was theirs another wave of attackers swept in. Now it was clear that Aliakoro had invited allies. Olumba and his men turned round and ran.  They were tired but had the advantage that they were running homewards and knew all the inconspicuous forest side-tracks.

The allies were running as a body and were unwilling to scatter in such unfamiliar territory. They were unable to catch the fugitives. The men turned back and joined Wago who was nursing a deep cut on his shoulder. Olumba was angry that he missed Wago again. Elendu, the leader of the allies sat on tree- stump and faced Wago the leopard killer.

‘What are we going to do now?’ he asked

‘Go back’, Wago replied without looking up.

‘And what will be our reward since we have neither prisoners nor booty?

‘That will be decided at Aliakoro’

‘And if we don’t accept your offers?’

‘A compromise can always be arrived at’

‘Look, wago, you have messed up this battle with your bad planning. You are a good fighter but you have no idea of organization. With better handling we should have captured many prisoners whose ransom would have brought us much money.’

‘Well it is not my fault if you killed all the enemies who came your way,’ Wago retorted calmly.

‘It is your fault. You are a real bungler. Think of Olumba’s battle plans and will realize you are nowhere. He planned this fight to the last detail taking into account every possibility. Many of my best fighters are dead or seriously wounded.’

‘And why didn’t you help with the planning? It is easy to criticize you know.’

‘But you wouldn’t let me put in a word.’

‘That is not true. You did not put forward any suggestion worth considering.’

‘Do you think I was made the leader of Isiali warriors for nothing?

‘Well when a man has no drum, he is obliged to beat on his chest,’ Wago replied. Elendu bit his lips in suppressed anger.

‘All right instead of bandying words like women let’s test ourselves for stamina and staying power. Let us pursue those people right to their doors and continue the fighting. We should be able to carry off many women and children from the village.’

‘You had a chance of capturing prisoners when you chased those men up this path a short while ago. But you and your men ran like ducks and let the fellows escape. Now you are talking of capturing women and children.’P51

The two leaders went on quarrelling and insulting each other, the men who had been watching them moved in quickly and intervened. The two leaders sat down after much persuasion. Elendu suggested that they should still go to Chiolu and finish off the fight. The warriors finally agreed on the plan. Wago said he endorsed their plan but he would not take part in it because of his wounds, he sent his assistance and other men from Aliakoro to go with them.(p52).   Elendu held a long discussion with the remaining men, and they also had to solve the problem of food before night fall. The plan was that, they were not to attack the whole village because they were too few and too weak for it. Seven compounds were selected; Olumba and Diali’s were included.

Olumba came back to the village very tired because he lost the battle and many of his men were still in the woods. At night, Olumba was able to check on some of his men, some were back and others who were not back he assured their families that they would be back. Those he couldn’t check on he promised to do that the following day. Olumba was so tired that without thinking he locked his door as soon as he entered his house, and went off to sleep.  That night, the Elendu men came and carried his pregnant wife and other three women they were unable to make the agreed number. They ran now dragging the women with them; when they arrived at the junction leading to Isiali they parted ways with the Aliakoro men carrying the women along with them as compensation for their loss.  Chiolu men could not wait patiently for the next day; they chased after them and were able to catch one of the Aliakoro men who told them that their women were taken by the Isiali men. Olumba was very angry because he is not used to that road he would get lost in the network of trails and track. They decided to pass the night where they were and continued the search the next day; there was no trace of them except a few drop of blood on the grass by the wayside.  The next day was a miserable day for Chiolu village, several men have been killed in the last battle, many were injured, four women that had children were kidnapped, it was a gloomy situation.

Olumba was very angry that his wife was been kidnapped by the Isiali men; he went over to Diali’s house and met him sobbing; his most beautiful daughter Chisa was also taken. Olumba greeted him and told him that they were unable to find their wives; he also told Eze Diali that the man they captured told them that their women were carried by Isiali warriors who were their allies in yesterday’s battle. Olumba proposed that they should sound the Ikoro and decide on what to do, Olumba left Eze Diali’s house and went straight to Okechi house to see him. He found him staring at the roof; his face showed the temporary wrinkles of a youth in trouble.  Olumba was touched, but he did not show his feelings. Olumba said to him that they should negotiate at Aliakoro because Oda, the mother of his only son, was kidnapped too. She is pregnant as well. The Ikoro sounded, many men assembled at Diali’s reception hall. After a brief discussion envoy was sent to Aliakoro to fix a date for negotiations.

Three day after representatives of Chiolu were in Eze Okehi’s reception hall trying to come to term with their opponents. Chituru was in command, he led the representatives to Aliakoro village. Chituru asked for their four women in exchange for the prisoner, the Aliakoro men disagreed with their terms and told them that they would only agree to exchange the man for one woman, after much argument the Chiolu men agreed to exchange the man for one woman and also agreed that the exchange would take place at the boundary between the two villages the next day. The following day came and  Aliakoro’s people  did not show up as promised. They tried the next day also but the Aliakoro did not show up. The Chiolu concluded that the Isiali men refused to hand over their women to them. They decided to give it some time and plan very well on how to attack the Aliakoro men.

Diali reminded them that in their days they fought to pass on the heritage of the great ponds to them and that it was up to them to decide whether to carry on or give up. Four days after the last meeting with Chiolu, the men of Aliakoro sent heavy escort with their women who were going for farming.

Eze Okehi was worried about the two birds his son caught without knife or bow and arrow. He decided to go see Igwu the dibia and his drum. He told him that Ali is very angry and does not tolerate violence against any woman with child. Igwu told Eze okehi that all the women must be returned to Chiolu and he should perform a sacrifice to placate Ali, the god of the earth.  Eze Okehi did not know what to do because the women were with the Isiali.  The next day, Eze Okechi performed the sacrifice after that, sent men to Isiali to fetch the captured women. Isiali refused to give them up, they demanded heavy sum of money. Eze Okehi was in a difficult situation and the sacrifice he performed was an interim measure to persuade Ali to stay action. Eze called for a meeting and told his elders the details of Igwu divination. They collected money quickly and sent Wago and six men to Isiali. The allies received the money and produced two women, Oda the pregnant woman was not among them, which made the situation worse. Wago asked for the other women, Elendu told him that they have been sold off. Wago took the remaining two to Eze Okehi who was stunned at the turn of the events.

Igwu, the dibia, was consulted; he told them to perform another sacrifice to plead with Ali to give them time to find the woman with child. Meanwhile the priests of Ali the god of the earth and of Amadioha the god of thunder and of the skies were sent as envoys to Chiolu to fix a date for the exchange of prisoners. It were the priests who played the role of envoys in such circumstances to avoid capture and killing. (p70). The date that was fixed came and Chiolu men were at the boundary of the village this time Aliakoro was there as agreed. They brought out the two women; Chisa and Oda were not among them. Diali asked of her daughter; they told him that he would pay four times four manillas for her to be released. The money was paid for the release of the other women. Wago was not comfortable with the smooth meeting, he was so surprise at the attitude of the Chiolu to crown it all, Olumba was not even present at the meeting.  Their village has been invaded by the Chiolu men and Olumba was their leader, three of their women were captured Eze Okehi last wife and Wago twelve years old daughter was among the three.  Wago was very angry he left few warriors behind and took the rest with him because the priests told them that the Chiolu would put up a fight at the boundary which did not happen.

Eze okehi saw the events coming but he was too scared to let it out he didn’t want to raise false alarm. (p73). Okasi that was sent to form them about the invader was killed along side with other warriors.(p75). The next day, Okasi and the other two men were buried with full rites. Wago was still very angry and wanted to put up a fight immediately he was stopped by the elders, they had to think and plan very well before taking any action again a lot has been lost and they are not prepared to lose another battle.(p76) Eze Okehi is very worried about the issue of the pregnant woman they have not seen and there was a possibility of seeing her. He said to himself that Ali is not a god to joke with; it is very difficult to shake off when deeply offended. All he had to do was placate the god at any time it got furious. This worries Eze Okehi and he developed a painful backache. As Eze Okehi became less active, Wago the leopard killer assumed more and more powers. Wago was still very angry at the loss of his daughter he decided to call for a meeting where he spoke at length on how the dignity of the village was at stake. At the end, he carried majority with him, he set out a new strategy he chose to harass Chiolu by making it unsafe for any member of that to walk the forests and highways at any time of the day or night. The Chiolu villagers took all the precautions they could. The guards were everywhere making sure the village was in full security.  It was a tight situation for the Aliakoro men, but they were able to kidnap a man from Chiolu. This first attempt made Chiolu take better security measures.

There was an old widow called Ochomma, she was the oldest woman in the village of Chiolu, she has two grandchildren who lived with her .One night the invaders of Aliakoro pitched on Ochomma’s house. They buried a charm close to the house to induce deep sleep on the household. Ochomma charms coupled with the mysterious powers which her great age had conferred on her, kept her awake she was able to detect a strange sound outside and guessed what was happening. She quietly woke Okatu her thirteen- year- old grandson and whispered instructions to him. Meanwhile the invader felt that the charms was working, they ran out of lock, they were killed. The death of the two warriors made Aliakoro show that they too could rig up horrors hitherto undreamed of. The war continued, starvation was not a long way off, on escort of any size offered enough protection. Even water was a problem, animals began to feel.

 

  1. 6. Conflits Resolution in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds : A Reappraisal

The effects of the deadly conflict. Even the priests were not safe as envoys, villages as far away as two days journey began to feel the effect of the war, the chiefs of these villages warned their people not to go near the two warring villages.(p84)

Eze of Abii  was very angry with the effect of the war in his village, so he decided to call for a meeting. They decided to protest to the two villages in turn. They sent out six strong men to Chiolu but the envoys were mistaken for enemies and chased back.(p84)

Eze Abii had to involve other nearby villages, so that a joint action could be taken. Omigwe, Isiali and eight other villages were of Erekwi clan.  They discussed on how to resolve the war between the two warring villages.(p85)

Forty tough warriors were chosen from six villages. Elendu of Isiali was to command them. They decided to visit Aliakoro first to negotiate peace meeting. They were well dressed and they also drummed as they went. When they got to Aliakoro village it was as if nobody was lived in that village, they moved into Eze Okehi’s compound and filled his reception hall, Elendu called out in a clear loud voice.

‘Eze Okehi, peace makers from the Erekwi clan have come to see you’.(p87)

Eze Okehi came out when he recognized Elendu voice, he thought Elendu brought him the other two women that have cost him sleepless nights, he had made an unending sacrifice which had made him poor. Elendu told him the reason for their visit. The iroko sounded and all the warriors of Aliakoro assembled. Elendu explained his mission, vast majority wanted peace quickly. They planed on meeting the Chiolu in eight days. Elendu men passed the night at Aliakoro and set out for Chiolu the next day.

When they got to Chiolu and met them in the same state as Aliakoro,as they entered the village with their drums they were stopped by Olumba and his men who asked them to identify themselves. Elendu the leader of the group came out and stated their mission. Olumba was so angry to see Elendu, he reminded him of kidnapping his wife. Elendu drew back quickly as he detected the mounting fire in Olumba’s eyes.

A warrior from Omigwe quickly intervened. He made Olumba realize the reason for their visit and made him understand that if he attacked them he has attacked the Erekwi clan. He went further to let them know that Aliakoro had agreed to negotiate with them in eight days. Chiolu also agreed to negotiate in eight days and promised not to give up the pond of Wagaba.

Referring back to sub-heading 4-3 in my chapter four (4) dealing with various strategies for the effective conflict resolution, I discussed four different strategies including arbitration, conciliation, mediation, and negotiation. It is true that strategies for resolving any conflict are not limited to those four. There are certainly many others that are not mentioned in this work. However, out of the four I elected to discuss in that chapter four, only two, namely mediation and negotiation have been tried in attempting to resolve the Wagaba ponds conflict. For example, in chapter nine it can be noticed that housewives at lsiali bustled about preparing hills of foofoo and lakes of tasty soup to feed the august assembly drawn from all the corners of the Erekwi clan. The village had never seen such a large assembly of old and venerable Ezes who were mediators acting as a neutral third party and facilitating the process of the conflict resolution. Curious crowds gathered near the large reception hall of Eze Iwai of Isiali staring at the visitors dressed as befitted their rank. Eze Diali and Eze Okehi were not gorgeously dressed but each wore a heavy ancient sword to indicate that they were at war.

So, after the midday meal the warring villages stated their case using  negotiation strategy which is a dialogue between two or more people or parties, intended to reach an understanding, resolve point of difference, or gain advantage in outcome of dialogue, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests of two people/parties involved in negotiation process by  quoting ancient history which none but the very old could grasp. Who really owned the ponds of Wagada? Both parties had at one time or the other fished in the famous pond. Before the present war, Chiolu was the current owner, but did that establish absolute ownership? Arriving at a decision was made more difficult by vehement declarations by both sides and any decision which did not favor each one of them would be ignored and war would resume.  It is obvious that when a party pretends to negotiate, but secretly has no intention of compromising, the party is considered to be negotiating in bad faith.  So, Eze of Aliji made it clear to warriors of Chiolu and Aliakoro that the Ezes of the Erekwi clan have assembled together for the first time ever and that they should be able to abide by whatever decisions the Ezes arrive at. The decision was not easy; Eze of Abii suggested that the pond should be splited between them. Eze Iwai said that they would end up fighting over boundary. Eze Wosu said; they should fish in alternative years.(p91)

Eze Iwai said that the only way to solve the issue is to allow one village have the pond. But who really owns the pond?  The old men racked their brains in vain for a solution.

They agreed on inspecting the ponds. They carefully inspected the ponds; the decision was as difficult as ever;

‘There is only one way out, the gods must decide,’ Wosu said

‘How? Eze Iwai wondered.  ‘A whole village cannot swear.’

‘A whole village cannot swear but a representative from each either of the villages can swear on behalf of his village.’(p92)

The decision was welcomed but each village insisted that the other should do the swearing. It is customary in African tradition that whatever human beings fail to resolve they refer to their gods. So, the matter moved from the human realm to the hands of the traditional gods. After much wrangling, Eze Diali said he was prepared to swear on Chiolu’s behalf. The Aliakoro asked for permission to move apart and confer. They came back and chose Olumba for the oath and the god he would swear by. Olumba accepted to swear by Ogbunbali on behalf of Chiolu. The next morning the Eze and the elders trooped to the dark shrine of Ogbunabali the gods of the night. Olumba stood before it naked but for a narrow strip of loin cloth. This was to make sure that he carried no talismans or other charms that might fight the powers of the god.

‘I swear by ogbunabali the god of the night that the pond of Wagaba belongs to chiolu.’

‘If this is not true let me die within six months;

‘If true, let me live and proper.’ (p93)

The image of the god was waved around Olumba’s head three times and the ceremony was over. If Olumba died within six months, the pond was Aliakoro’s, if he survived it was Chiolu’s.

Before they left; an assurance was made that;

‘Those who would harm Olumba

By the knife or the barbed arrow,

By strange charms or witchcraft,

Kill them Ogbunabali king of the night,

Kill them and show signs’.

Olumba came out of the shrine dazed. His fellow villagers surrounded and encourage him as they walk back to their village. Olumba thought was full of so many confusion and doubt about the oath he had taken. At a point he realized that he was not serving the god of Ogbunabali. His thought brought in more fear. Meanwhile the elders of the village called for a meeting on how to protect Olumba from harm. They listed some rules for him to abide by.

‘He must not travel.’

He must not climb trees.’

‘He must eat only what his first wife cooks’.

‘He must not go to farm alone.’ (p99)

Ikechi was appointed to help him with palm wine tapping and some laborers were sent to him with farm work. Olumba has always said that he would rather face a whole village single-handed than fight with a spirit.

‘What a man works hard to avoid always hit him. I have done all I know how to satisfy the gods yet here I am fighting with one.’ (p102)

One long month has gone. Olumba was able to keep his fear down. He was more bothered about the compulsory state of idleness to which he was subjected. He felt reluctant to move about. Everywhere he went, instead of the usual smiling faces, he was confronted by faces heavily lined with pity and fear. Olumba was not comfortable with the idealness, he followed Ikechi to tap palm wine, it was very difficult convincing Olumba not to claim the tree. He paid a deaf ear to Ikechi and climbed, Olumba has been swarmed around by insects stinging his face, on trying to get down from the tree he missed his step and crashed heavily to the ground, he was unconscious. The elder took him to a dibia called Anwuanwu of Abii who was able to cure him and also detected that he has been attacked by enemy. The dibia made so incantations and asked Olumba to repeat after him;

Ogbunabali, king of the night,

Let not evil spirits rejoice,

Nor men accuse you of injustice:

I know your hand is not in this,

Heal me and clear your name.’(p111)

Five days after Olumba’s fall Eze Diali and some elders were listening to the latest reports on Olumba; delegate came from Aliakoro to discuss the death of Olumba and the date for the pronouncement of the rightful owners of the pond of Wagaba. Wago the leopard killer was the speaker. The elders of Chiolu were very surprise and they made them  know  that Olumba was still very much alive. They asked the delegate to tell their Eze to send his elders to verify in eight days. They did turn up after eight days. After much wrangling and simulated anger Chiolu produced Olumba dramatically. Igwu is a powerful dibia and a strong well built man, like other villagers he had a vague feeling that the pond of Wagaba was Aliakoro’s but felt it was not worth fighting for. He saw it as a stupid exchange of fish for human lives. After his bath, Olumba did not remark the rent of his wrapper until afternoon of the next day. He thought it was the work of rat in his house. Olumba was fed up with his mental battles which constitute a kind of internal conflict for him so he decided to stroll to Daili’s house. On his way a brightly colored snake crossed his path. It was Azigwo the snake of ill omen.

He watched it disappear on the other side of the road and turned back. When he got home he told his wife about it. They decided to consult Achichi the dibia, who told him that it is a warning that he should be careful. A single sacrifice was performed that evening. Olumba went to bed with some reliefs. At midnight he woke up with a start. He was sweating and trembling. He went into his wife Wogari’s room and woke her.

‘Did you call me?’ he asked ‘I thought I heard my name three times.’

Olumba could not sleep, he felt very hot and the air was stifling. He hardly knew when he moved over to the other room and lay beside his wife. She felt the heat of his body and shouted. Before her the eyes of Olumba’s condition was deteriorating at an astonishing rate. Achichi was invited, he tried a quick divination, and he could not see anything, by the evening of the next day his condition grew worst. Immediately they sent for Anwuanwu form Abii. He was able to detect the cause of the sickness. He told the elder that Olumba has been cooked and that his enemies at Aliakoro were responsible. He asked Olumba if he heard any call at any time. Olumba accepted. He also asked him if any of his wrappers was missing. Olumba said no but rat ate a corner of one of his wrapper. The wrapper was examined by Anwuanwu and he discovered that it has been cut off by knife and the wrapper was for the cooking process.

The dibia’s work was hard to fight back. It was not an easy battle. The conflict has changed dimension. It changed from physical dimension to spiritual one;   the spectacular part of the many rituals performed that night was the burying of a big he-goat alive. According to the dibia Olumba’s spirit had already travelled halfway to the spirit world. The only way to persuade the spirits to let him go was to offer them a he-goat’s life. The he-goat was buried with all the ceremonies normally accorded to a dead man. It was washed and a new wrapper was tied round it before burial. (p134)

In two days Olumba was well again. His recovery was as rapid as his illness had been sudden. They elder appreciated Anwuanwu’s work and begged him to stay with them for the next three months. Anwnuanwu told them that he could work quite effectively from Omokachi and promised to stay for four more days to complete his work. The next four days were very busy ones for Anwuanwu. He warned everyone not to attempt to kill any wild animals they might see. He did the killing himself. Olumba was now well protected with charms and he knew what to do in an emergency. The villagers of Chiolu especially the elders, were worried and angry at the act of the Aliakoro. A meeting was held and delegate were sent to Aliakoro to confront them about the issue but Eze Okehi denied being responsible for Olumba’s illness.

Anwuanwu warned the Chiolu not to fight back. He made it clear to them that the gods are wise.  The Aliakoro did not relent; they were prepared to do more. They decided to ask Igwu for the way forward, he told them that he narrowly escaped and that it was the worst days of his life.  Wago kept on reminding him that the month was running very fast and something has to be done. Igwu has been pushed once more against his will. He told them that the next series of special sacrifices would be offer to the Ogbunabali god of the night and prayer to him to expedite judgement. Meanwhile a terrible sickness called ‘Wonjo’ was killing people on each side of the two warring villages Diali was at his wits end. The old well near the arena which was being used as a common grave was now full. Ikechi’s father, Njola is dead; he had to scratch out a grave for his father. Daili promised to bury Njola decently and also promised to sent him some helps but he knew it was a promise difficult to fulfil.(p207)

Diali suddenly felt loneliness over him; all his friends had gone and he thought Ogbunabali was reserving him for the last moment. He went to Njola’s house to bury him. He also got three men who willing helped out. On his way back home he saw Wezume who was still hanging on waiting for death to knock. And so Wonjo, Ogbunabali’s messager, took its daily toll. At night strange noise filled the air. The living heard distinctly the song and lamentations of the unhappy spirits of the dead as they marched through the village. Some who had keen ears made out some of the words of their song? It was only in later years that people had the courage to sing some of these songs. Today, old men in the Erekwi clan still stiffen and gnash their teeth when these melancholy songs are rendered. Ikechi came visiting Olumba, he told him that he was feeling the symptoms of wonjo. Ikechi rose to go when he saw Wago the leopard killer. He said he had come to check on his sick friend Olumba. Ikechi went back to inform Olumba about Wago’s visit. Ikechi left Olumba raving with anger and went to report the issue to Eze Diali , the chief showed little surprise for the new that Wago has been around monitoring the situation of thing in Chiolu. Ikechi took some actions, he consulted two other young men, together they strolled out to confront Wago, but their quarry was gone.

All through that day Wago was the talk of the village. His strange visit generated so much indignation that for a moment the village showed signs of life. The angriest men were those who had fought at the great ponds.

“We shall not let go,’ they cried. ‘The pond of Wagaba is ours,’ (p210)

Olumba compound was flooded with visitors, some coughing, other limping with walking- sticks. They all did their best to encourage him. Olumba said to his visitors: ‘men of Chiolu, the pond is ours I shall not die’,

The next day his illness took a critical turn for the worse. He was determined not to give up; not with Wago the leopard killer laughing at him right in his compound. But slowly he deteriorated. Towards evening the enthusiasm of his visitors went down considerably when they saw his condition. The night closed in sensitive people heard the footsteps of ghosts marching round the village. Wago stalked round Olumba’s compound listening, ikechi and his two friends decided to keep watching Olumba’s compound till late. Olumba found it difficult to distinguish between the songs of the marching ghosts and the muffled groans of the bereaved. He felt something walking on the roof directly over where he slept. He said to himself I shall not die.

‘You shall die’, said the voice now disembodied.

Olumba was seeing misty shape by his bed that was echoing ‘you shall die’.

He came out shouting and screaming ‘I shall not die’.

The three men did not bother to stop him, they just followed him through the village shouting;’I shall not die! Not till the moon is out!’(p212)

The next day, Olumba’s behavior was the talk of the village. Ikechi related the incident to Diali. He asked them to continue watching him. For most of the day Olumba slept peacefully. Occasionally he would sit up and lunge the air with his walking-stick, he continued telling himself that he would not die.

The misty sharp increased they were trying to close in the sick man. The warrior grabbed his walking-stick and jabbed at the air. He got up and headed for the arena. People who were not too sick came out of their houses to watch him go by.

“I shall not die!’

“You will not die!a few villagers echoed.

‘You are already dead,’ the misty shapes said.

Several people gathered in Diali’s reception hall to watch Olumba talk;

‘I am Olumba! I am Agadaga the unbeaten wrestling champion, son of an eight-headed warrior! Come Wago and I shall beat eight like you.’(p214)

Olumba rose up and made for the arena, he walked like a drunken man, on his way he was attacked by a leopard, his whole body was entwined with that of the beast. Ikechi and Eziho were able to fight the leopard, the beast disappeared with two bounds leaving its skin behind.

Chiolu was wild with surprise. All but the dying turned up in the morning to see the leopard skin which Ikechi and his friends had deposited in Diali’s reception hall.

They all suspected Wago the leopard and decided to go on a search. Diali was surprised at the enthusiasm the villagers showed. Half a dozen men, some of them convalescing from Wonjo, volunteered to do the search. First the men went to the scene of the fierce struggle of the night before. From there they were guided by the track of blood of the wounded creature. Meanwhile some villager followed Eze Diali to Olumba compound to watch with him.  They met him and asked him how he was doing; he said; I am feeling very well. The pond of Wagaba will be ours! The onlookers applauded. All through the day the villagers kept Olumba Company.

He behaved normally. His narrow escape seemed to have instilled a sense of reality into him once more. Towards evening the search-party returned .Ikechi fainted on his way back it was Wonjo. Eziho narrated the event. He said Wago the leopard is dead. He was found in the water. He also explained that Wago has a smile on his face.(p216) Eze Diali cried in anguish. For the first time since the war of the great ponds began, he lost control of himself. He told the people that it would be an abomination to fish in a pond in which someone committed suicide. Achichi was consulted. And he confirmed that Wago the leopard- killer had committed suicide. The death continued. It was only the beginning. Wonjo, as the villagers called the great influenza of 1918, claim a grand total of twenty million lives all over the world.(p217). It is then clear and evident that Elechi Amadi in The great ponds had tried to prove that men fought for what didn’t deserve any attention.

 

  1. 7. Discussion and conclusion

Just as in other literatures, the plots of most African literary works centre on conflict – that is, struggle between opposing forces. For example, in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds, a conflict occurred between feuding villages over the ownership of the Wagaba pond. Likewise, there are different kinds of conflict, some small and others big that we encounter in our daily interactions. An example of a big conflict, actually a potential war conflict is the one that has gone on in Cote d’Ivoire as a result of former President Gbagbo’s obstinacy to relinquish power although it has been clearly established that his opponent, Dr. Allassane Dramane Ouattara won the free election. But, it is the dexterity or alacrity with which human beings resolve any conflict and subsequently, restore peace that proves to be a magnanimous act. However, not all conflicts are bad, and conflicts come in many shapes and forms and have many distinct functions.

Actually, various functions of conflict have been described by several theorists, one of whom is the American theorist Lewis Coser through his widely-read book The Functions of Social Conflict published in 1956. In this work, Coser wrote “as the scribes,” since he used Simmel’s essay on conflict as the starting point for his own commentary on the integrative effects of conflict. While Coser drew upon a wide variety of sources for the development of his ideas, he rightly gave Simmel the credit for the initiation of many of the major threads with which his theory was woven.

Coser’s work was frequently couched in the language of functionalism, and the title places it clearly within the functionalist perspective. Like Simmel, Coser sought to show that conflict has positive as well as negative effects. However, Coser did not get involved in some of the sticky functionalist issues, most notably the issue of “societal needs” or functional prerequisites. In addition, the book’s major assertion – that conflict is as normal as integration and that it is as likely to lead to integration as to disintegration – was at odds with the integrationist perspective then (1956) prevalent among functionalist.

Coser developed sixteen “propositions” relating conflict to social integration. These, perhaps, are propositions in some philosophical senses, but they are not expressed in deductive format. They are essentially prose statements, often in the form of complex and multiple sentences, of some aspects of conflict in social life. Coser showed that conflict leads to integration in a number of different ways, including the establishment of group boundaries, the drawing off of hostility and tension, the development of more complex group structures to deal with conflict and its accompaniments, the creation of alliances with other parties, and the cultural and functional unity achieved among enemies. The essence of Coser’s propositions has been summarized in the following statements:

1-Conflict with another group leads to (a) establishing the separate identity of the group and (b) strengthening its boundaries.

2-Conflict sometimes preserves relationships between parties by allowing the venting of hostility; groups institutionalize means by which conflict and hostility may be released harmlessly.

3-Realistic conflict is directed toward the attainment of specific ends, while unrealistic conflict is directed toward tension release.

4-Conflict is a form of social relationship and can occur only in an interactive setting.

5-Close relationships almost invariably have conflict as well as peace and harmony.

6-The closer the relationship between two parties, the more vigorous and intense will be the emotions and behavior between them.

7-Conflict sometimes leads to the removal of the source of the conflict and a reaffirmation of the unity of the two parties.

8-Tenuous relationships often lead to a withdrawal from conflict, while strong relationships often exhibit conflict; usually such conflict does not involve the “basic consensus” around which the relationship is established.

9-Conflict with an outside group leads to greater internal cohesion, centralization, and mobilization of resources.

10-The greater the conflict with another group, the greater the intolerance of deviation within the group.

11-The need for internal cohesion often leads groups to search for or magnify conflicts with other groups.

12-The greater the individual identification with the group, the greater the hostility toward other groups and the greater the probability of malevolent behavior toward the out group.

13a-Conflict between two parties may to an extension of interaction between the parties.

13b-Conflict between two parties leads to the establishment of new norms and the reaffirmation of old norms.

13c-The greater the conflict with an outside group, the greater the social participation in group life by the members of the group.

14-Conflict between groups sometimes leads to a desire that the other party be unified.

15-Conflict is a “test of power” between two parties; sometimes parties can accommodate to each other only after testing each other through conflict.

16-Conflict leads to coalition formation and the search for allies.

While we cannot discuss all of these ideas at any great length here, let us illustrate Coser’s (and Simmel’s) point of view with two examples.

When conflict occurs between two groups finds it essential to mobilize its forces to combat the opposition in Elechi Amadi’s The Great Ponds, one can observe that advent of conflict obliges Olumba to get prepared. Olumba relied on gods, on his traditional powers and the fact that he has a big confidence on amulet also brings him to look for fight to test the power of hid charm.

‘This charm is for fighting and it had cost him a lot of money’ (p4)

He is then trying to prove that he has been all the time preparing himself for fight. In this context, it is obvious that he he should accept the job committed to him to arrest the poachers because this would give him an opportunity to test the strength of his costly charm. Coser asserts that conflict is a ‘test power’ between two parties.elechi Amadi proved through his main characters people do not try negotiations ways because they rely on their weapons. Olumba and Wago got charms on which they relied on; this brings them to try to challenge each other. Through his novel his novel, Elichi Amadi also showed that conflicts didn’t have only inconvenient but they beard advantages. This feud between the two villages obliges the Ezes, the chiefs of the Erekwi clan to search for solutions to the issue which opposed the two villages year ago.

The conflict presents a certain dilemma: on the one hand group must make use of as many members             as it is able to muster, while on the other hand it must protect itself from persons who are not totality committed to the group and who might subvert it. For example, a street gang which has an imminent date for a rumble with another gang must get as many persons as possible from the “street” to fight with bit, yet must avoid recruiting those who might inform the police of the battle in advance.

The result is a relatively rigid establishment of boundaries around the group, which in turn entails clear definitions as to who are members and who are not. Those accepted as members must pass tests of loyalty and allegiance and thus are brought to identify closely with the values of the gang and its members. The enforced unity of the group under the pressure of conflict is a significant resultant of the conflict and is accompanied by an increased personal identification with the group and increased group support to the individual, which are highly values by the members.

Another of Coser’s (and Simmel’s) significant insights is that intense personal relationships occur in situations which foster interpersonal conflicts. Close relationships can only occur when each party to the relationships values the relationship highly and commits a great part of his time and emotional energy to it. Such large-scale investments of self are necessary to the establishment of intense and intimate associations and provide the interpersonal capital which usually brings large dividends in affection, acceptance, and emotional support. However, such situations are also conductive to intense disputes precisely because of the extensive investment of self in the relationship. One is more likely to have a dispute with one’s wife than with a passing stranger because one’s wife has greater means to either assist or hurt. Coser’s proposition “the closer the relationship, the more intense the conflict” rings true, not because of the number of methodologically valid studies he has mustered to support it but because the reader can apply it to his own experiences with others and see its applicability to his own life.

Coser’s work can thus be seen to be closely related to Simmel’s not only in content but also in manner of presentation. Coser relied upon reasoned argument and insightful illustration to bring the reader to an introspective examination of his own experience. Coser’s work demonstrates impressive scholarship, but the significance of his book is not in its empirical validation as much as in the discerning manner in which its principles are applied to everyday life.

Again, conflict is part and parcel of human life. All that it takes is dexterity and calmness to resolve every conflict that arises for the humanization of the world. And when humans are sometimes incapable of reaching good denouement, supernatural forces take care of the rest. That is the case in Nigerian author Elechi Amadi’s novel The Great Ponds, the decision of returning the issue to the goat of night Ogbunabali to judge to whom belonged the Wagaba ponds was welcomed but each village insisted that the other should do the swearing, the matter is then referred to the gods under the terms that Olumba’s survival for six months would confirm the ownership by Chiolu. Just as Chiolu seems poised for victory, a more universal affliction in the form of a ravaging influenza sweeps across the world, rendering the business of the ponds insignifican. Moreover, the suicide of Wago, the leading Aliakoro warrior inside contested pond, renders it useless, because it is a taboo to fish in such polluted waters. In sum, the story clearly shows the futility of human endeavor and dtrife. The auther is then inviting us to the promotion of the tolerance value. Elechi Amadi also showed through his novel under study that we can get solutions to our many conflicts that we are facing nowadays in Africa by returning to African traditional values. It is customary in African tradition that whatever human beings fail to resolve they refer to their gods. So, the matter moved from the human realm to the hands of the traditional gods. Through his The Great Ponds, Elechi Amadi is inviting us to return to our African values to resolve the conflicts that are tearing the continent. In this postmodernism era, we need to make use of our traditional culture or values to find sustainable and permanent solutions to our crisis.

 

 

 

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L’AMELIORATION DE LA COMPETENCE ORALE A TRAVERS L’APPROCHE COMMUNICATIVE DANS L’ENSEIGNEMENT DU FRANCAIS DANS LES COURS SECONDAIRES NIGERIANS

SUNMONU, Hamed Olaide &

LALEYE, Jonas Kehinde

Département de Français,

Adeniran Ogunsanya College of Education,

Otto / Ijanikin, Lagos State, Nigéria.

Résumé

La présente recherche s’inscrit dans le cadre de l’analytique des méthodes d’enseignement/apprentissage de l’expression orale. Elle consiste particulièrement à affronter plusieurs théories de la méthodologie face à la nouvelle tendance de  l’approche communicative. Elle est basée sur le sens et le contexte de l’énoncé dans une situation de communication. Cette recherche a  pour objectif de tenter de mieux comprendre l’importance de l’oralité et de faire le lien entre la théorie et la pratique de la langue française. Elle essayera également de  relever certaines  ambiguïtés  de l’enseignement/apprentissage de l’expression orale. Par ailleurs elle va tenter de conceptualiser les problèmes pratiques  en vue d’aider l’enseignant à prendre ses dispositions dans l’exercice de sa profession.

Mots clés : Amélioration, Compétence orale, Enseignement du français.

 

Abstract

This present research is interested in analysing the methods of teaching and learning of oral expression. It is done as a challenge to several theories of teaching oral expression compared to the latest communicative method. It is based on the meaning and context of a sentence in a communication situation given. The research has as its’ objective to try to understand better the importance of oral expression and to make a liaison between the theory and practice of the French language. It will equally try to bring out some ambiguities on the teaching and learning with oral expression. Thereafter it will bring out the practical problems so as to help the teacher to use his own initiatives in the practice of his profession.

 

 

 

Introduction

La langue française est une langue vivante et elle occupe une position imminente à l’échelle mondiale. L’importance du français, langue étrangère au Nigéria, est indéniable vu la position géographique du pays. Le Nigéria est entouré par les pays francophones. Il va alors sans dire que l’apprentissage du français est une nécessité qui s’impose aux apprenants des écoles nigérianes. Toutefois il faut souligner qu’il y a plusieurs problèmes qui  font face à l’apprentissage de la langue française. Parmi ces problèmes ; le corps enseignant composé des francophones  qui ont appris le français comme L1, des francophiles qui n’ont pas été formés pour enseigner le français (L3) et celui de la méthodologie qui parait  être le plus important.

  1. 1. La problématique de l’étude

On perçoit dans le sujet proposé la problématique autour des points ci-après:

–      L’incompétence/inhabileté des apprenants à s’exprimer oralement et faire usage du français en situation de communication.

–      Une langue est avant tout un moyen de communication, l’apprenant doit pouvoir en faire usage en toute circonstance.

 

–       L’acquisition de l’expression orale est un facteur déterminant dans le résultat de l’examen.

 

–       Communiquer en français  favorise des relations de bons voisinages avec les pays limitrophes du Nigeria et peut promouvoir la paix.

  1. 2. L’objectif de l’étude

Nous nous fixons comme objectif, de montrer et de démontrer que la langue est un outil de communication et d’interaction sociale. Ce qui veut dire que les activités doivent être nombreuses et variées, favorisant l’expression libre et les échanges en situation de communication active.

De montrer que le matériel didactique doit répondre aux objectifs de l’enseignant et aux besoins et intérêts des apprenants, d’où le recours à des documents authentiques sonores provenant des médias (journaux, enregistrements d’émissions de radio et de télévision) en harmonie avec la méthode de l’approche communicative.

a) L’application de la méthode de l’approche communicative permet d’atteindre amplement la perception vocale et la perception intonative en classe de langue.

b) L’approche communicative permet de suivre de façon significative les étapes de la compréhension orale à travers les activités ludiques capables de motiver les apprenants à  améliorer la compétence orale.

3. La signification de l’étude

La compétence orale chez les apprenants nigérians du français langue étrangère (FLE) durant les trois premières années du secondaire mérite une attention particulière. Cet intérêt qui ne va pas tarder à devenir une volonté provient de nos conversations avec les étudiants de la langue française à l’occasion d’une excursion à l’Université de Lagos. Face à cette situation nous ne saurons mettre aucun délai  à mener une réflexion sur comment améliorer la compétence orale chez les apprenants du secondaire. Cette étude nous permettra de proposer une méthode qui prône  une démarche qui tente de donner une nouvelle dynamique à l’oral, en situation d’interaction.

4.La méthodologie de la langue francaise

Les méthodologues et les didacticiens ont continuellement cherché la méthode appropriée pouvant motiver et faciliter l’enseignement/ l’apprentissage de la langue française quelle qu’en soit  sa position ( L1, L2 ou L3). Dans le même ordre d’idée Germain et Seguin classifient l’objectif de l’enseignement de la grammaire en trois catégories :

  1. 1. La grammaire d’enseignement destinée aux professeurs, un produit sous la forme de propositions ou de suggestions pédagogiques pour présenter la grammaire.
  2. 2. La grammaire d’apprentissage destinée aux apprenants se présente comme un produit concret destiné a être directement utilisé  par les destinataires sous la forme d’un manuel ou d’un ouvrage orienté vers l’apprentissage de la grammaire.
  3. La grammaire de référence, destinée aux linguistes et aux didacticiens se présente sous la forme d’un ouvrage de base qui présente la grammaire d’une langue de manière soit prescriptive soit descriptive ou les deux à la fois. ( cité par Opara 2005 :3)

Nous comprenons à travers ce regroupement que chaque enseignant/apprenant a un objectif spécifique qui nécessite une considération de la méthode à adopter pour un enseignement qualitatif. En revanche, Akeusola (1996 : 1)  définit la méthodologie comme  :

une étude scientifique de l’ensemble des démarches, des manières et des techniques de dispenser des cours variés à la compréhension des apprenants différents.

Les professeurs qui apprennent le français L1 ont le but d’être littéraire  ou dans le but de bien s’exprimer (en langue de Molière). Par conséquent ceux qui ont appris le français en (L2),  sont les produits d’une expérience particulière et  ont habileté à mieux comprendre les difficultés des apprenants du français (L2).

5.La méthodologie de l’enseignement des langues

L’étymologie du mot méthodologie nous permet de voir que c’est un mot composé; méthode et ologie. Le mot méthode vient de l’antiquité lexicale gréco-latine, signifie l’ensemble des démarches raisonnées suivies pour parvenir à un but ou l’ensemble des manières fondamentales mises en œuvre pour accomplir un travail ou un devoir. C’est aussi l’ensemble des techniques objectives que l’on met en usage pour réaliser une tâche. Quant au mot ologie, d’origine grecque, il signifie études scientifiques. La méthodologie est donc une étude scientifique de la méthode. Akeusola (1996 :1) conçoit la méthodologie comme une étude scientifique de l’ensemble des démarches, des manières et des techniques de dispenser des cours variés à la compréhension des apprenants différents. C’est une étude scientifique de l’ensemble des règles, des principes, des manières fondamentales et des techniques objectives sur lesquelles reposent l’enseignement et la pratique des langues, des arts, des sciences, des études sociales ainsi que les autres domaines de la connaissance humaine.

Nous pensons toutefois que le principe fondamental de la méthodologie devra être la pratique de la connaissance acquise. Par ailleurs, il devra mettre en examen les méthodes dans le but de discerner la méthodologie qui convient le mieux, et qui tient compte le plus que possible des spécificités et des besoins de chaque apprenant selon son environnement. Selon Le Petit Larousse Illustrée (2013 : 686) ; la méthodologie est une étude systématique, par observation, de la pratique scientifique des principes qui la fondent et des méthodes de recherche qu’elle utilise.

Sur la base de ce qui précède, nous notons que l’enseignement dans le cadre formel, c’est à dire qui commence dans la salle de classe, est à même de gérer et mettre la théorie  au service de la pratique. La prise en compte de la complexité des situations réside dans l’utilité de la connaissance acquise par l’apprenant dans la société. La méthodologie de la langue est alors le dessin des moyens possibles mis en jeu pour amener l’apprenant/l’enseignant à apprendre/enseigner avec l’objectif d’utiliser  la langue dans la communication  avec un comportement langagier efficace.

Pour ne pas s’écarter de l’objectif de notre travail, nous examinerons les différentes méthodes qui ont marqué l’enseignement des langues étrangères en général et le français en particulier.

6.Les types de méthodes

Les méthodes, dans leurs diversités et leurs progressions, peuvent être classifiées en quatre grandes tendances : l’ère de la méthode directe, la période de la méthode traditionnelle, la classe des méthodes structuro-globale audio-visuelle (S,G,A,V,) puis enfin celle qui nous intéresse le plus ; la nouvelle ère de l’approche communicative.

La méthode directe

Elle est composée de deux méthodes: la méthode naturelle et la méthode directe.

(a) La méthode naturelle

Elle paraît la plus pratiquée dans la vie des hommes car elle est sans doute la plus ancienne. Elle consiste à acquérir et à reproduire de manière la plus spontanée possible une langue au contact des natifs qui la parlent. L’acquisition de la langue étrangère à travers cette méthode est le produit de la nécessité de communiquer avec son entourage. Elle est fondée sur des relations natif/cohabitant. Le natif dans le rôle de l’enseignant. Le cohabitant prend la place de l’apprenant : pas de traduction, pas d’explications grammaticales. C’est cette méthode qu’on s’est efforcé de mettre en œuvre il y a quelques années au Village Français de Badagry. L’ambition est celle de créer un environnement pour une immersion linguistique. La grammaire est apprise de  manière induite. F. Gouin est considéré comme le pionnier du bain linguistique. Il est à noter que cette méthode fait allusion  à la méthode directe qui a connu jour bien plus tard dans les années 1900.

b. La méthode Directe

Elle consiste  à utiliser la langue cible comme langue de travail. Pour enseigner/apprendre une langue étrangère, les cours sont dispensés strictement à travers les dialogues figés et adaptés à des situations spécifiques. L’usage des poèmes, des chansons et des dialogues sont les pratiques courantes dans la méthodologie directe. Il ne s’agit pas ici de voir les inconvénients que présentent cette méthode même s’il est de constat que les apprenants, face à une situation réelle et factuelle différente à celle des dialogues mémorisés, ne se retrouvent pas. Il s’agira plutôt de voir la mode opérationnelle de la méthode directe. Les mots étrangers sont enseignés sans passer par  leurs équivalences en langue maternelle. Le vocabulaire est illustratif. Il est enseigné à l’aide des objets ou des images.  La  traduction ou l’équivalence est interdite sauf en cas majeur. L’objectif est d’amener l’apprenant à réfléchir en langue étrangère le plus tôt possible. La forme écrite est reléguée en dernière position alors que l’utilisation de la langue orale est privilégiée. On considère la langue écrite comme une langue orale “scripturée”. On accorde une importance particulière à la prononciation et à la répétition. L’accent n’est plus mis sur l’enseignement de la grammaire étrangère. La grammaire est inductive (les règles ne sont pas étudiées  de manière explicite). On privilégie les exercices de conversation et les questions-réponses dirigées par l’enseignant. La méthodologie directe se base sur l’ensemble des procédés et des techniques permettant d’éviter le recours à  la langue maternelle. On conclut pour dire que c’est   l’utilisation de plusieurs méthodes à savoir les méthodes directe, active et orale et s’oppose à la méthode traditionelle que prônent les didacticiens de la méthode traditionnelle aussi appelée la méthode « grammaire-traduction ».

7.La méthode traditionnelle

La méthode traditionnelle est apparemment  la plus maîtrisée et pratiquée par les enseignants. C’est une méthode classique d’enseignement/apprentissage de la langue étrangère. Elle  est parfois aussi décrite comme ‘‘méthode grammaire et traduction’’ calquée sur le modèle d’enseignement du grec et du latin . Cette méthode est concentrée sur l’utilisation des livres de grammaire où l’apprenant mémorise le lexique et  les principes  qui renvoient à une conception normative (règles grammaticales/exercices d’applications) donc plutôt descriptive que  naturelle et spontanée. L’enseignant est le maître dominant de la classe, le détenteur du savoir.

Il choisit les textes et prépare les exercices, donne des instructions en L1 et fait des corrections  de la langue L1, il ne s’agit pas d’appendre à parler une langue étrangère L2. L’enseignement ou l’apprentissage selon cette méthode est plutôt dirigé vers les formes écrites.

En effet, le but de cette méthode est d’utiliser des exercices de thème, de version, de réponses écrites à des questions écrites, d’application de règles trouvées dans le livre de grammaire.

Il est évident que l’importance accordée à l’écrit est sans équivoque. Les activités métalinguistiques ou des travaux de stylistique comparée, l’ application des règles grammaticales ou la mémorisation des textes et poèmes (les récitations) sont privilégiés par rapport à la pratique de la langue, reléguant ainsi la communication à l’arrière-plan.  Les fichiers des cours sont sous la forme canonique suivante : l’énoncé est expliqué en L1 puis l’illustration des règles grammaticales par quelques exemples en L1 puis en L2. Cette méthode exige le plus souvent une traduction mot- à -mot, en L1. Puisque cette forme de traduction est parfois inductrice d’erreurs  et surtout quant on sait qu’il n’y a jamais une équivalence parfaite entre deux mots de langues différentes, les apprenants s’en sortent parfois avec des approximations contestables sur le plan sémantique. D’autre part, l’enseignement/apprentissage porte essentiellement sur les formes écrites de L2 et tient peu compte de la production orale.

Il est intéressant de noter à ce niveau, l’avantage que présente l’utilisation de deux langues (L1 /L2) dans l’enseignement/l’apprentissage de langue.

Si le terme acquisition veut dire apprendre une langue par le contact avec les usagers, comme on le perçoit d’ailleurs chez les enfants, qui sont doués d’un ‘‘dispositif inné d’acquisition de langue’’ (ILAD), l’apprentissage fait référence à une acquisition consciente d’une langue autre que la langue maternelle, dans des conditions formelles des classes d’enseignement/apprentissage de langues.  Selon Chomsky    chaque enfant qui naît a déjà les empreintes du langage et prêt à acquérir la langue de son environnement. Selon Esther Chikaodi ANYANWU, Celui qui comprend une seule langue ne maîtrise vraiment pas cette langue. Elle suggère que l’utilisation de L1 dans L2 ne peut qu’aider l’apprenant à être plus flexible dans sa réflexion, ayant le choix  de procéder aux d’informations à la manière qui lui paraît la plus juste.

 

 

 

 

8.Les méthodes structuro-globale audio-visuelle (S,G,A,V)

L’épanouissement de la technologie des années 50 a facilité  la production commerciale des matériels didactiques  à l’instar des appareils audiovisuels. Dans le souci de mettre ces appareils au service de l’enseignement/apprentissage, les didacticiens se sont retrouvés. Le résultat de cette rencontre fut la naissance de la Méthode structuro-globale audio-visuelle. Voyons comment l’oral et l’utilisation des supports sonores, dialogues enregistrés seront exploités dans les salles de langue.

a. La méthode audio-orale

Cette méthode, d’origine nord-américaine, est d’abord connue au nom de aural-oral method (audio-orale en français). Elle fut son apparition aux Etats-Unis pendant une quinzaine d’années, entre 1950 et 1965 date à laquelle elle fut introduite en France.

Pour enseigner l’oral, l’enseignant utilise des documents sonores, cassette, CD… enregistrés à l’avance. Les instruments  vocaux :  la chanson,  le conte, le dialogue…..etc. permettent  à l’apprenant de s’habituer aux produits sonores. Cet exercice aide l’apprenant à construire une idée sur le contexte qui va l’amener vers une production orale au moment de répondre aux questions posées.

Les documents audio aident au décodage de l’oral et insinue l’exposition à la langue pour une bonne compréhension de l’oral. Les dialogues présentés selon de diverses situations de communication préparent l’apprenant à faire face  à des situations de communications diverses. L’apprenant est assujetti à une progression rigide. Cette méthode ne répond pas très souvent aux aspirations et aux besoins des apprenants qui vivent dans des milieux différents de ceux qui ont conçu les documents didactiques. Il est toutefois à noter que la méthode S.G.A.V. et la méthode audio-orale ne sont pas des sœurs jumelles. Elles diffèrent de par les techniques utilisées et de par les hypothèses sous-jacentes. Si nous avons choisi de mettre les deux ensemble, c’est parce qu’elles donnent l’une et l’autre la priorité à la langue parlée, au moyen de dialogues élaborés en fonction  d’une progression décidée à l’avance.

 

 

b. La méthode audio–visuelle

La méthode audio-visuelle, ou plus rarement appelée méthode situationnelle, une dénomination qui parait plus exacte et adaptée, est élaborée par deux équipes de didacticiens au début des années 50. La méthode rejette la traduction et des présentations explicites de grammaire. La limitation stricte au vocabulaire est interdite. Elle insiste sur l’expression orale. La progression  est fondée sur une description cohérente.

Les vidéos permettent d’accroître la motivation et donne le plaisir d’apprendre. On peut entrevoir l’intérêt particulier que les enseignants/enseignés portent aux activités qui se déroulent dans cet environnement d’outils technologiques. La vidéo favorise la bonne représentation des images et sons. Elle  retient d’avantage l’attention de l’élève. Elle permet la transmission d’un grand nombre d’informations en peu de temps. Cette technique  facilite  une meilleure mémorisation de la langue et stimule l’apprenant à émietter les mots afin de mieux les prononcer. L’accent est mis d’entrée,  sur la communication plus que sur la manipulation. Les exercices structuraux hors situation sont refusés et le sens des messages est a priori examiné.

Enfin, comme dans la méthode audio orale les dialogues ne sont pas construits en fonction d’une progression contrastive destinée à prédire et à prévenir les interférences issues des habitudes de L1. L’environnement qui est créé ici est fictif. Au début des années soixante-dix en réaction contre la méthode audio-orale et la première génération de la méthode audio-visuelle, et qui, sous certains aspects interpelle une nouvelle tendance. Connues sous les noms de méthodes communicative et interactionnelle, elles rappellent les méthodes grammaire-traduction et directe.

9.La nouvelle tendance : la methode communicative

Par le passé, et qui plus est encore de nos jours, des études ont été menées pour déterminer ce qui peut être considéré comme la bonne et la meilleure façon d’aborder l’enseignement de l’expression orale dans la classe de langue française. Comme toute autre entreprise humaine, on peut toujours réexaminer les recherches  antérieures et apporter sa pierre à l’édifice pour une meilleure performance orale des étudiants en classe de langue étrangère.

Dans ce duel de la communication orale en opposition à la communication écrite, nous proposons de porter une attention particulière sur la pratique et l’enseignement de l’expression orale dans la méthodologie communicative.

L’homme est né avec le besoin de s’exprimer, d’extérioriser ses sentiments les plus profonds. Ce besoin crée en lui la spontanéité d’utiliser les organes innés en lui. La langue se révèle l’organe la plus utile, d’autant puisque les gestes pourraient être une alternative, moins encore l’écriture qui est une forme d’expression plus récente. Elle ne donne pas toutefois l’opportunité d’un rapport interactif entre un émetteur et un destinataire. A contrario, le langage fait appel à la capacité d’une réaction instantanée et prompte. L’objectif d’une bonne compétence orale se résume en la production verbale dans toute situation communicative. Selon  Claudine Garcia-Debanc dans Évaluer l’oral (Pages 10 & 11)

L’expression orale, rebaptisée production orale consiste à s’exprimer dans les situations les plus diverses, en français. Il s’agit d’un rapport interactif entre un émetteur et un destinataire.

La communication, d’une manière générale peut être définie comme l’ «  action de communiquer, de transmettre quelque chose à quelqu’un … » (Dictionnaire Universel Francophone, 1977:257). En particulier, la communication orale fait référence à la spontanéité de transmettre un message d’un individu à un autre.

Baylon et Mignot (1999:75) insinue sur l’essence de la communication.

La communication humaine garde toute son originalité quand elle s’exerce par l’intermédiaire du langage. Même s’il existe encore aujourd’hui bien d’autres moyens de communiquer, ils n’ont ni la constance ni l’ancienneté dont bénéficie le langage articule.

Cet extrait met l’accent sur le langage verbal tel qu’il se manifeste à travers l’expression orale. Force est de constater qu’aujourd’hui, les productions orales sont reléguées au second plan ou placées en marge de l’apprentissage de la langue étrangère selon certaines méthodes. Et pourtant, l’expression orale constitue tout de même l’essence de la communication.  Léon (1977:9) est d’avis que :

«  l’oral est le code linguistique le plus important. Non seulement parce qu’on l’acquiert en premier mais aussi parce qu’il est le seul qui soit indispensable au sujet parlant ».

Il est à retenir ici que l’oral réclame une place de prédilection dans les communications humaines. C’est un outil d’expression commun à toutes les langues et incarne la vie dans les transactions humaines. Le monde serait un espace inerte et sans activité s’il n’y avait pas la parole. Une langue peut ne jamais connaître l’écriture, mais tant qu’elle est parlée, elle restera vivante. Par conséquent  une langue qui n’est plus parlée est morte (le latin). L’oral est sans doute le code linguistique le plus indispensable du langage et mérite l’intérêt qu’on lui accorde.

Les méthodologies traditionnelles visaient surtout à  développer des compétences écrites au détriment de l’oral. Toutefois l’oral est supposé être la première étape dans l’enseignement/l’apprentissage d’une langue. L’écrit est incontestablement  un dérivé de l’oral. C’est à cet effet qu’il fallait développer une méthode qui privilégie l’enseignement/l’apprentissage de la communication fonctionnelle. Bernard (1991 : 6) opiniatre que l’année 1975 a été le début d’un commencement d’une nouvelle méthode qui répond au besoin de l’enseignant dans l’apprentissage et à l’acquisition de la compétence orale. Bailly et Cohen (2005 : 15) confirment cette assertion  quand ils ont écrit :

…C’est en 1975….inspiré des préoccupations militaires des Etats –Unis de l’après guerre cherchant à communiquer de manière efficace dans les pays ou  ils débarquaient, le Niveau Seuil du conseil de l’ Europe fait un inventaire des compétences linguistiques à atteindre pour pouvoir être rapidement opérationnel dans un pays étranger. Pour la première fois, la langue est découpée, non plus en structures grammaticales, mais en une liste de notions et de fonctions définies selon des besoins minimaux.

Olu Akeusola (2010 : 220) remonte plus loin dans les années cinquante et partage l’avis des protagonistes de l’approche communicative ( Saussure et Skinner). Il prône que :

Les prémices de l’approche communicative remontent aux travaux de Noam Chomsky qui a révolutionné le monde de la linguistique. A l’heure où les théories structuralistes étaient en plein essor, postulant que chaque langue constitue un système de structures complexes imbriquées les unes dans les autres.

Nous comprenons que c’est à partir des années 50 que les Etats-Unis d’Amérique ont adopté une nouvelle tendance qui privilégie l’oralité. Il s’agit de la méthode audio-orale qui plus tard va se métamorphoser en méthode de l’approche communicative. Elles ont un objectif commun. Celui de primer l’oral et considérer l’écrit comme le prolongement de l’oral. L’objectif pédagogique repose sur la nécessité d’aider l’apprenant à accéder au sens des énoncés et pouvoir répliquer instantanément. Pour remplir le vide entre l’apprentissage  d’une langue en tant que matière et la langue en tant qu’outil de communication et d’interaction sociale, les défenseurs de l’approche communicative dans les années 70 ont accordé aux processus d’enseignement/apprentissage l’objectif premier de rendre l’apprenant actif et libre en situation de communication. L’enseignant se fixe l’objectif de mener des activités pouvant amener les apprenants à s’exprimer dans les situations diversifiées et selon leur besoin.

Les français ne se sont fixés un objectif différent, ils opiniatrent une méthodologie qui prime la communication orale. La controverse est au niveau du père fondateur de l’approche communicative. La paternité des inventions a parfois été convoitée par les grandes puissances. Cette assertion nous amène à voir la version française après avoir considéré et analysé l’approche anglo-américaine sur la méthode communicative. Les didacticiens français distinguent deux formes de français :

  • Le français instrumental vise la communication orale en situation de classe uniquement. Il s’agit d’acquérir une compétence de compréhension immédiate. Il s’intéresse à la compréhension de textes spécifiques plutôt qu’à la production.
  • Le français fonctionnel, qui est fondé sur les besoins langagiers réels des individus. Il envisage une relation de locuteur à locuteur dans certaines situations de communication, et selon certains rôles sociaux. On détermine les besoins langagiers des apprenants en fonction des actes de parole qu’ils auront à accomplir dans certaines situations.

Avec cette méthode, il s’agit d’acquérir la compétence linguistique de L2 (langue apprise) et la compétence communicative. En terme pédagogique, cette méthode se veut activée. Toutes les possibilités qui permettent l’interaction des apprenants et de l’enseignant sont mis  en jeu dans la méthode communicative.

Les notions supposent qu’on tienne didactiquement compte des réalités auxquelles elles se référent, des contextes dans lesquels elles s’insèrent. Même s’il semble que nous avons mis beaucoup d’accent sur la compétence orale, il reste toutefois  à souligner que la méthode communicative vise d’autres objectifs. Elle aide aussi l’apprenant à maîtriser les quatre compétences linguistiques à savoir : la compétence et la production orales (C.O et P.O) d’un côté, puis la compétence et la production écrites (C.E et P.E) de l’autre côté. Le chapitre trois va expliquer dans beaucoup plus de détails, comme le dit Fancelli (1998), comment nous pouvons,  à travers une application méthodologique, amener les apprenants  à  se servir de L2 pour réaliser les tâches et actions de la vie quotidienne. Nous verrons dans la suite le rôle de l’écoute dans la communication et comment elle peut être travaillée chez les apprenants.

10.Les recommandations

Les difficultés de communication en situation réelle se faisant de plus en plus sentir, il est alors justifié d’investir dans des recherches scientifiques pouvant amener à trouver une solution durable à ce problème.

A cet effet, suite à des démarches entreprises dans ce travail, nous pouvons suggérer des recommandations pouvant aider à améliorer les capacités linguistiques des apprenants de Junior Secondary School (JSS) avec référence aux causes d’inhabileté de s’exprimer.

 

 

 

a) Motivations

La motivation est un élément essentiel qui encourage les apprenants et les enseignants à mieux s’adonner aux tâches qui leur sont confiées. Ces éléments sont sous les formes suivantes.

 

b) Ateliers de perfectionnement.

Les ateliers de renforcement de capacité et de mise à jour permettant aux enseignants de mieux cerner les nouvelles techniques d’enseignement. Ces séances de formation ou de reformation doivent être régulières, peut- être à la fin de chaque trimestre ou à la fin de chaque année. La gratification des bourses pour aller en France ou dans les pays francophones limitrophes pour les enseignants. Les apprenants peuvent à leur tour être envoyés au Village Français du Nigéria ou dans les colonies de vacances organisées dans les pays francophones.

 

c) Installation des laboratoires de langues.

L’installation des laboratoires de langues est une nécessité pour  l’enseignement/apprentissage du français. Le français langue étrangère exige dans son apprentissage moderne l’utilisation de nouvelles techniques d’exercice  de laboratoire. Ces techniques facilitent une assimilation auditive et oratoire en situation de communication. Le laboratoire de langue permet d’éviter l’ingurgitation qui est un produit des anciennes méthodes, où l’apprenant, accumule massivement  des connaissances sans les assimiler. Un laboratoire de langue dans chaque école est une source de motivation dans l’application de la méthode de l’approche communicative. Bien que ce projet soit à un coût extensif, il mérite notre attention.

 

d) les excursions en milieux francophones

Pour améliorer la compétence orale chez les apprenants des écoles secondaires de  troisième année du premier cycle, le contact avec les homologues des milieux francophones est indispensable. Cette  tentative est exigeante et coûteuse. Les parents aussi bien que les philanthropistes ont un rôle primordial à jouer dans l’exécution de cette activité ludique. Elle offre aux apprenants l’opportunité d’une  mise en pratique des connaissances jusque-là acquise de manière machinale.

 

e) La création des clubs de français.

C’est un cercle qui renforce la communication entre les catégories d’âge et expérience. Les apprenants ont pour la plupart des parents qui ne s’expriment pas en français. Ils sont dans des milieux hostiles à la langue française. Il va sans dire que le club français pourra jouer un rôle dans l’acquisition de la compétence orale chez les apprenants des écoles secondaires.

 

f) La méthode d’enseignement

Comme l’indique le titre de ce travail : L’amélioration de la compétence orale à travers l’approche communicative dans les écoles secondaires des élèves de jss3 Lagos, Nigeria. L’approche communicative nous a servi de base dans ce travail. Le résultat de nos recherches nous permet de dire que l’approche communicative, quand elle est bien maîtrisée et appliquée par les enseignants elle donne un bon aboutissement. Nous recommandons vivement que les cours de recyclage soient organisés pour un renforcement de capacité chez les enseignants.

 

 

Conclusion

Dans le souci de mieux exploiter la méthode qui convient, afin de parvenir  à l’acquisition et à la pratique d’une langue étrangère, le Cadre Européen Commun de Référence (CECR) définit six niveaux de compétence en langue pour toutes les langues vivantes. Ces niveaux permettent par exemple : la formulation des critères qui déterminent qu’un objectif d’apprentissage soit atteint. À l’aide de ces niveaux, la description et la comparaison des niveaux de compétences des élèves dans des situations de communication sont privilégiées.  Ces six niveaux concèdent la notion de la communauté. Par exemple, Tagliante présente deux types de communautés différentes: la Communauté de niveaux de compétences et la Communauté de pratiques évaluatives. A travers ce travail nous avons tenté de voir dans quelle mesure, l’approche communicative aide à accéder aux deux communautés : celle de la compétence et celle de la pratique évaluative.  Dans ce travail nous privilégions  le niveau de compétence langagière à travers une bonne audition. Autrement dit, travailler une bonne audition de  la langue parlée en diverses situations de communication. L’approche communicative offre des moyens appropriés tant a l’enseignant qu’aux apprenants pour aboutir à cet objectif: celui de pouvoir communiquer en toute situation.

Bibliographie

AKEUSOLA, Olu (1996): Guide pratique de l’enseignement de la langue française, Lagos, A-Triad Associates.

ANDRE, Reboullet (1971): Guide Pédagogique pour le Professeur du Français Langue Etrangère, Paris,  Hachette.

CARIE, Jean-Marc et al (1980): Jeu, Langue et Créativité, Paris, Hachette.

CARIE, Jean-Marc et al (1984): Manipulation de Textes de Chanson dans «Le Français dans le monde», avril, pp.57-60.

BERNARD, Evelyne (1991): L’Approche Communicative Théorie et Pratique, Paris, Clé           International.

CHRISTINE, T. (1994): La classe de langue, Paris, Clé International.

COSTE, D., GALISSON, R. (1976): Dictionnaire de didactique des langues, Paris, Hachette.

Federal Ministry of education,  (2007): French Language for Junior Secondary School 1-3,        Abuja,             NERDC.

Federal Ministry of Education, (2012): Senior secondary school curriculum French language for            SS1-3,             Abuja,  NERDC.

GRAND-CLEMENT, O. et al.(2007): On y va! Méthode de français Senior Secondary School, Ibadan,             Spectrum Books/Clé International.

La Grande Encyclopédie Larousse, volume 2 (1975), Paris, Larousse.

La Grande Encyclopedie Larousse, Tome 19 (1976), Paris, Larousse.

Le Grand Larousse Encyclopédique en 10 volumes (1960), Paris, Larousse.

LEIF, J.(1974): Philosophie de l’éducation, Tome 4, Delgrave.

Les Modules (2000): Recueil des fiches pédagogiques destinés à l’enseignement de FLE, Version          PA 3.0, Jos, CFTD.

 

ROBERT, Paul (1969): Le Petit Robert-Dictionnaire de la langue française, Paris, le Robert.

ROBERT, Paul (1967): Le Petit Robert – Dictionnaire de la langue Française, Paris, Le Robert.

 

LA MODULATION DANS HOUSE BOY LA TRADUCTION ANGLAISE D’UNE VIE DE BOY DE FERDINAND OYONO

Rita Ochuko Mebitaghan

Delta State University, Abraka

mebirita@yahoo.com

 

&

 

Mombe Michael Ngongeh

University of Port Harcourt

mombe200@yahoo.com

Resumé

Ce présent article aborde les particularités syntaxiques dans l’œuvre littéraire africaine face à la traduction en langue étrangère. Une de boy, le texte de départ (TD) de Ferdinand Oyono  et  House boy le texte d’arrivé (TA) sa traduction anglaise, constituent le corpus de l’étude. Les éléments langagiers et d’autres constituants d’un énoncé sont étudiés  en vue de leurs fonctions syntaxiques. On remarque qu’un énoncé en langue de départ  (LD) considéré comme un ensemble à tendance de présenter les décalages surtout lorsqu’il s’agit des décalages relatifs à la stylistique contrastive  de l’anglais et du français. D’ordinaire le texte traduit tente de reformuler le message codé tout en gardant les éléments linguistiques des deux langues enjeu et cela présente les variations aux niveaux lexico – sémantiques et syntaxiques. De nos constats de la traduction d’Une vie de boy, le traducteur (John Reed) a bien utilisé la modulation dans la plupart des traductions réalisées dans Houseboy. Force nous est alors de nous intéresser à une analyse comparée du TD et TA en vue d’élaborer la projection que la traduction laisse a la disponibilité du traducteur de nombreux techniques de traduction dont la modulation tout en partant de la grammaire descriptive d’Andrews (2006).

Key Words : modulation, traduction, grammaire descriptive.

Introduction

En général; il est évident que les précédés de traduction qui servent à combler les problèmes de traduction sont fort utiles surtout au traducteur des romans africains. La traduction de ces romans se complique davantage étant donné la présence inévitable des expressions relatives à l’usage africain que le traducteur doit traduire. Heureusement, la recherche (telle que celle de l’école de Canada) laisse à la disposition du traducteur un bon nombre  de précédés tels que le calque,  l’emprunt, la modulation, la traduction littérale, la transposition, l’équivalence. On remarque à travers Houseboy la traduction anglaise d’Une vie de boy que la modulation est fort utilisée par  John Reed le traducteur.

Par ailleurs, on sait que traduire c’est le fait de passer un message d’une langue à une autre langue et on dit souvent que traduire c’est trahir. La modulation comme technique de traduction entraine des variations dans le sens réalisé au niveau de la pensée. Alors cette étude  analyse la traduction d’Une vie de boy à dessein de pouvoir établir à quel point le traducteur a réussi les traductions réalisées par la modulation. Il importe cependant de rappeler que Ferdinand Oyono produit de l’ école coloniale française, fait partie de la première génération d’écrivains africains, précisément ceux des années 50, laquelle génération d’écrivains qui fut la première affrontée par le problème d’exprimer la civilisation et la pensée noire en langue étrangère tout en gardant l’africanité dans l’emploi de cette langue coloniale importée. Ce phénomène demeure toujours un point d’intérêt dans la traduction littéraire africaine.

 

La grammaire descriptive

La grammaire descriptive présente des règles qui véhiculent  le fonctionnement des langues. Au sens strict du terme, elle reconnait que tout emploi langagier est efficace malgré les variations entre langues. Selon Andrews (2006 :25) :

 

Descriptive grammar is the linguistic approach that studies what a language is like as opposed to prescriptive which declares what a language should be like…….In other words, descriptive grammarians focus analysis on how all sorts of people in all sorts of environments, usually in more  casual, everyday settings, communicate [without prejudice to right or wrong] while prescriptive grammarians focus on the grammatical rules and structures predetermined by linguistic registers and figures of power for those who are under the control of said authorities to us.

 

Ainsi peu importe les règles grammaticales et tout énoncé est censé être adéquate à part entière dans son emploi; l’essentiel est de pouvoir décrire les structures syntaxiques. La modulation permet au traducteur de manipuler la langue a travers ses formes variées et cela l’entraine  a chercher a comprendre le fonctionnement des éléments syntaxiques dans tout énoncé a traduire

Modulation et Traduction

Selon Vinay et Darbelnet (1977) la modulation est :

Une variation dans le message obtenu en changeant de point de vue d’éclairage. (p.51). Elle exprime d’une façon générale l’opposition entre deux raisonnements et qu’elle est, de ce point de vue un indice de divergence entre deux langues, entre deux attitudes mentales vis-à-vis dune même situation (p.137).

Simpson (1984) en fait preuve attestant que ‘le traducteur à recours  à la modulation lorsqu’il constate qu’une traduction littérale ou transposée résulterait en un faux sens ou en un écart du message de départ’. La modulation se manifeste sous plusieurs formes à savoir:

(i)                 L’abstrait  pour le concret

(ii)               Une partie pour le tout

(iii)             Une partie pour une autre

(iv)              Le renversement des termes

(v)     Le contraire négatif

(v)                Le changement de symbole

(vi)             La modulation explicative

(vii)           L’actif pour le passif  …

(viii)         L’espace pour le temps.          ‘

11 existe encore d’autres aspects plus larges de modulation tels que la modulation libre et la modulation figée. Dans le premier cas, il n’existe pas de processus fixe de traduction et donc elle est à refaire chaque fois tandis que le deuxième cas implique la traduction fixe et cette fixation provient du fait que la traduction à force d’usage a été adoptée et a fait son entrée dans le dictionnaire. Dans House boy, la traduction d’Une vie de boy on constate que les traductions réalisées grâce à la modulation appartiennent aux modulations dites libres.

 

La modulation dans House boy

 

Diverses formes de modulation sont adoptées par le traducteur ; elles comprennent les suivants :

L’abstrait pour le concret

On 1’appelle aussi le général pour le particulier. Il consiste à rendre en termes concrets en langue d’arrivée (LA) ce que la langue de départ (LD) présente en termes abstraits et vice versa. Des exemples se relèvent d’Une vie de boy et sa traduction anglaise:

(a)        Jai deux paniers de linge sale. p. 134

I’ve got a couple of baskets of dirty clothes. p. 88

Dans cet exemple ‘deux’ qui est plus concret est rendu par ‘a couple’ en anglais qui  n’est pas un nombre déterminé et est alors abstrait, mais l’essentiel c’est que la traduction ne heurte pas le message.

 

(b)     A la dernière marche. p.30

At the top step. p.18

 

Dans l’exemple, ‘la dernière’ peut s’appliquer  à la dernière marche soit en haut soit en bas du même escalier ce qui le rend abstrait, mais on sait que ‘top’ qui est précis et concret s’applique à la dernière marche en haut.

 

(c)    Les blancs s’en allèrent. p. 31

The Europeans went away. p. 18

 

Le terme ‘blancs’ peut désigner les américains ou certains asiatiques et est alors un terme abstrait mais la traduction en langue d’arrivée est plus concret car elle donne l’indication qu’il s’agit particulièrement des blancs d’Europe (les européens).

 

Une partie pour le tout

Cette forme de modulation, implique 1’emploi d’une partie pour désigner le tout du même trait. Par exemple:

 

(a)           I recognized you were brother by your face p. 4 ‘

Je t’ai reconnu mon frère, par  ta gueule p. 12

 

La ‘gueule’ un mot familier pour la ‘bouche’ est une partie du visage et elle est utilisée ici à la place du visage pour traduit le mot ‘face’ (le tout).

(b)          He almost snatched the letter from my hands. p. 4

Il m’a presque  arraché  l’enveloppe des    mains. p. 101

 

Le mot ‘letter’ un trait particulier et une partie du tout remplace le tout (consisté de la lettre et de l’enveloppe).

 

(c) Madame twitched her nostrils… with a delicate movement of her body. P.103

Madame remua ses narines… avec un délicat mouvement du buste. p.157

On sait que le ‘buste’ est une partie du corps ; la traduction est alors réalisée en remplaçant ‘buste’ par ‘body’ (le tout).

Une partie pour une autre

 

Cette forme de modulation exprime presque la même idée que  celle de la partie pour le tout sauf qu’ici les deux parties appartiennent à la même réalité. En effet, c’est le remplacement d’une réalité par une autre ayant le même sens. Par exemple:

 

(a)                Hommes et femmes se coudoient. p. 53

Men and women sit shoulder to shoulder. p. 34

 

(b)           Il passa sa burge paume sur ses 1èvres. p. 95

He passed his big hand over his lips. p.60

.

(c)            Je sais, je sais, coupa le commandant, en riant au bout des lèvres. P.150

I know, I know, said the commandant smiling at the corner of his mouth. p. 99.

 

De ces exemples ci-dessus on constate que tous les mots soulignés en LD sont des parties du corps en LA: ‘lèvres/mouth’, ‘paume/hand, ‘se coudoient/shoulder to shoulder’. Dans le premier exemple nous constatons une transposition du verbe au nom : coudoyer (verbe), shoulder (nom) mais dans ce cas cette dernière fonctionne comme modulation.

 

Le renversement des termes

La traduction peut se réaliser par le renversement des termes. Dans ce cas le terme en LD s’exprime par  le contraire du terme en LA, c’est-à-dire les termes sont opposés, mais le message n’est pas alterné. Exemples :

 

(a)      On voit bien que tu n’as pas le sang vieux p.96

I can see you’ve still got young blood p. 61

 

(b)      C’est  plus grave que si to avais regardé sous sa robe .p.135

It’s worse than if you’d looked up her robe. P.89

 

On constate dans ces exemples que les termes sont renversés mais ils expriment le signifié des idées en termes contraires: ‘sous’ et ‘vieux’ s’opposent’up’ et ‘ young’ respectivement.

Le contraire négatif

Il s’agit de l’utilisation des particules de négation, par le traducteur où le texte original s’en est passé en terme positif ou vice versa; on dirait que cette forme de modulation consiste à présenter positivement en LA ce que le texte en LD présente négativement. Exemples :

:

(a)           Cc ne sont pas les femmes qui manquent dans notre quartier. p138

‘There are plenty of women in the township. P.91.

 

(b)          Son regard ne me quitta plus tant que je monta l’escalier.  p.I10

She kept her eyes on me as I came up. p. 72

 

On remarque à travers les exemples, que ce que l’auteur a rendu négativement, a été traduit en termes affirmatifs par le traducteur. On remarque également que dans le deuxième exemple, le traducteur a laissé tomber l’idée de ‘tant’ et l’a traduit comme  ‘as’’ sans trahir le message.

Le changement de symboles

Ici les symboles employés en LD peuvent changer en LA ou vice-versa mais l’essentiel c’est que le point de vue ne change pas car la réalité  est maintenue; les symboles employés représentent une réalité abstraite pour le destinataire de la traduction. Exemples:

(a)           Espèce de canaille, de vicieux, de cachottier s’écria-t-elle.  p. 144 you rascal, you rogue, you sly devil she shouted p. 95.

 

(b)          Quand ils arrivèrent… le calvaire de Mme Moreau allait commencer. p. 101.

As they arrived… it was to be a martyrdom for Madam Moreau p. 65.

 

Les expressions ‘canaille’ et ‘ rascal’, vicieux’ et ‘rogue’, ‘cachottier et ‘sly devil’ évoquent les mêmes réalités en LA et LD; il en est de même pour les mots ‘calvaire’ et ‘martyr dom’.

 

La Modulation Explicative

On rencontre ici une forme de modulation qui suppose une analyse de la réalité en LA et un jugement de valeur en LD. Elle se retrouve sous les formes suivantes:

 

(i) La cause pour l’effet

(ii) Le moyen pour le résultat

(iii) La substance pour 1’objet

le traducteur d’Une vie de boy ne s’est pas beaucoup servi de ce genre de modulation dans sa traduction anglaise mais il y existe quand même quelques exemples :

(a)       La cause et  l’effet

(i)         Le cuisinier, le garde et moi étions perplexe. p.111

The cook, the sentry and I did not know what to think. P.84

 

(ii)    Dehors, c’était une nuit aveugle. P.151

Outside, the night was like pitch.  p.100

 

Le moyen et le résultat

(i)                 Elle n’a pas touché 1′ eau depuis qu’on m’a arrêté.  p.174 She has not washed since I was arrested.  p. 116

 

(ii)       Elle n’avait pas fermé la porte  p.12

‘The door was left open p. 7

Décidément, les diverses  traductions tirées et analysées ci-dessus démontrent que la modulation en tant que technique s’est avérée un très utile au traducteur  d’Une vie de boy en House boy; les exemples des diverses formes de modulation en font preuve.

Commentaire général et conclusion

Languages may converge but not merge: it is in the act of translation that their apartness manifests itself or it is there that it should do so. And yet we hold that act $of translation the most successful which contains no evidence at all of the apartness of languages but only of a source text flawlessly naturalized, which is to say finally occluded.

(Sturrock, 2010: .50)

Par la nature des différents types de modulations employés dans la traduction d’Une vie de boy, il est évident  qu’elles appartiennent à la catégorie de traduction dite libre. L’utilisation du procédé de modulation pourrait ne pas être  le seul à la disponibilité  du traducteur. Si par exemple on adopte d’autres procédés on pourrait arriver  tout de même à une traduction assez passable et qui pourrait être une ‘équivalence dynamique’ (Nida : 1964) et qui serait  en même temps la plus proche dans la langue d’arrivée. Dans ce cas- la, on se range aux cotés de tout traductologue comme Simpson (1984) qui propose qu’une bonne traduction est celle qui est  fidèle à l’original, il estime que: ‘A good translation is one which is faithful to its original’ (p. 144). Pour Simpson, la fidélité consiste en ce que la valeur de communication en LD doit être identique en LA comme par exemple:

 

j’ai  deux paniers de linge sale.

I’ve got a couple of dirty clothes.

 

On pourrait également  traduire cet exemple (qui démontre la modulation ‘l’abstrait pour le concret’) comme:

 

I’ve got two baskets of dirty clothes.

 

Mais c’est que cette dernière traduction ne caractérise pas une l’expression ou le parler tout ầ faire anglais car un anglophone ne dirait pas  ‘two’ ou ‘some  baskets of dirty clothes’, il dirait plutôt: ‘a couple of’ ou ‘ some dirty clothes’. Voila pourquoi dans des cas semblables le traducteur pourrait avoir recours ầ la modulation, et ceci implique une traduction qui ne heurte pas au génie de la langue d’arrivée. Considérons un autre exemple de la modulation de cause et effet :

 

Dehors c’était une  nuit aveugle

Outside the night was like pitch.

Si on traduit la phrase en LA comme ‘It was a blind night,’ on remarquera que la traduction en soi est juste au niveau de la  grammaire française   mais dépourvue de sens car le message ne serait pas bien communiqué aux destinataires de la traduction. Cette traduction en LD est une personnalisation de la nuit et laisse entendre que la nuit comme l’être humain possède des yeux, d’ailleurs l’expression ‘the night is blind’  ne se dit  pas en anglais courant. L’expression en texte de départ  ‘c’était une nuit aveugle’ faire savoir qu’on ne pourrait rien voir par une.nuit aussi obscure. Cette représentation imagée d’une nuit aussi noire nous rappelle qu’on ne peut rien voir par une obscurité  pareille . On conclut alors que ‘Outside, the night was like pitch’ se passe comme une bonne  traduction.

Evidemment, la divergence des traductions réalisées par John Reed est atteinte grâce ằ la modulation. Notons qu’il ne suffit pas de faire une traduction mot-ằ-mot  ou de faire une traduction passable mais de faire une traduction qui soit capable de transmettre le vouloir dire  aux destinataires en rendant  l’équivalence des situations en LD en LA. On constate que c’est  cc que John Reed  a tente de  faire dans les exemples abordés  en se servant de la modulation comme procédé, il a essaye de remplacer aussi toutes les variations dans   le texte original par  l’équivalence. Ceci  indique que même si le point de vue change en utilisant la modulation, il n’ya pas de variation dans le message.  Ce postulat correspond ằ la définition de Vinay et Darbelnet (1977) concernant la traduction :

 

`The separation which consists in transferring from one language to another

al1 the elements of  meaning. of a passage and only these elements, while

ensuring that they retain in the target language their relative importance,

as well as their formality and also taking into account the relative differences presented by the cultures to which the source language and the target language correspond  respectively (p. 143).

 

Ainsi, il devient facile de conclure que la modulation en tant que procédé de traduction, s’acquitte de sa fonction et le destinataire de la traduction peut s’initier avec aise au monde évoqué par le traducteur ayant abordé  les phénomènes langagiers tout en respectant les subtilités de LA ou de LD.        ,


Références

Andrews, L. (2006). Language exploration and awareness. A resource Book for                       Teachers Mahwah,NJ.Lawrence, Earbaum Associates, Inc, publishers

Ladmiral, J. R. (1979). Traduire : Théorèmes Pour La Traduction. Paris: Petite Bibliothèque Payot.

 

Mounin, G. (1965). Les Problèmes Théoriques de la Traduction. Paris: Editions Gallimard.

 

Mounin, G. (1968), ‘Introduction Linguistique aux problèmes de la  Traduction’ in Le français dans le monde: janvier-février 1968, Vol, 169.

 

Nida, E.. A. & Tabor, C. R. (1969). The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: Brill.

 

Oyono, F. (195xz6). Une vie de boy. Paris: Editions Julliard.

 

Oyono, F.  (1966). House boy, traduction par John Reed, London; Heinemann Educational.

 

Vinay; J. B. et Darbelnet, J. (1977) Paris: Didier.

 

Simpson, E. ‘Evaluating a Translation: The objective criteria.’

 

Sturrock, J. (2010).’ Writing between lines: The Language of Translation’ in Critical Readings in Translation Studies, Mona Baker (ed.), London and New York: Routeledge.

 


[1]http://www.gradesaver.com/author/shakespeare∕AsYou Like It

[2] ROHTAK, As You Like It. Doctorate of distance Education, Maharshi Dayanand University. 2002

[3]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act I.i

[4]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act I.i

[5]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act I.i

[6]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act II.i

[7]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act IV.ii

[8]« The love racket: Defining love and agape for the love-and-science research program », Zygon, vol. 40, no. 4 (December 2005), pp. 919-938

[9]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act II. iii

[10]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act II. vi

[11]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act III.v.

[12]www.revolvy.com/main/index.php?s=Courtly love 17-02-2017 07:02

[13]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act III.V

[14]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act III.iii

[15]www.SixWise.com.The 9 Types of Romanic Love: Which Type Do You Believe In?

[16]William Shakespeare. As You Like It. London: Heinemann Educational books. 1965. Act I.ii

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[18] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.

[19] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.

[20] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.

[21] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.

[22] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.

[23] For illustrations of these games, please see Appendices corresponding to the number of the game.